United States District Court, W.D. Pennsylvania
CORRECTED MEMORANDUM OPINION 
B. WALTON United States District Judge
January 17, 2017, the non-jury trial in this matter commenced
before this member of the Court on Count One of the
Indictment, which charged defendants Anthony Pryor and Lance
Yarbough with conspiracy to distribute and possess with
intent to distribute heroin “[f]rom [o]n and around an
uncertain date in 2008, and continuing thereafter to [o]n and
around October 2012.” Indictment at 1, ECF No. 1. Count
One further alleges that Anthony Pryor was legally
responsible for 100 grams or more of a mixture and substance
containing a detectable amount of heroin and that Lance
Yarbough was legally responsible for one kilogram or more of
a mixture and substance containing a detectable amount of
heroin. See id. at 2-3. The bench trial addressing
these charges was conducted as a result of the
defendants' and the government's waiver of their
rights to a jury trial, see Order at 1 (Dec. 22,
2016), ECF No. 624, and the presentation of the evidence
concluded on January 30, 2017. What follows are the
Court's factual findings and legal conclusions. Based
upon those findings and conclusions, the Court finds both
defendants guilty on Count One of the Indictment.
EVIDENCE PRESENTED DURING THE TRIAL
government presented testimony during the trial of the
following witnesses: (1) the Duquesne Police Department Chief
Richard Adams; (2) Detective Jason Mikelonis from the
Allegheny County Police Department; (3) Federal Bureau of
Investigation (“FBI”) Special Agent Leonard
Piccini, Jr., the lead case agent in this matter; (4) various
law enforcement personnel involved in the investigation; and
(5) various individuals who participated in the heroin
distribution conspiracy charged in this matter, including
Ashley Auston, Richard Glenn, Rodney Brown, Isaiah Grier, and
Corey Thompson. The government also presented numerous
exhibits, including photographs taken during surveillance or
recovered pursuant to a search warrant, as well as
communications (i.e., text messages and telephone calls)
intercepted either pursuant to warrants or conversations with
cooperating witnesses. Set forth below is a summary of the
relevant testimony and documentary evidence received during
The Investigation of the Alleged Heroin Distribution
Agent Piccini testified that the investigation into this
alleged heroin distribution conspiracy began in 2010 when he
was assigned to the Pittsburgh division of the FBI and
stemmed from his involvement with the “Manchester
OG” case, which was a wiretap investigation into a
“violent-based gang” in the north side of
Pittsburgh that was allegedly “obtaining . . . large
amounts of heroin from . . . multiple sources of
supply.” Jan. 23, 2017 Trial Transcript
(“Tr.”) 48:23-24. Several intercepted
communications in that case indicated the occurrence of a
robbery of an individual named Corey Thompson, see
id. at 49:2-3, whom Piccini came to learn “was a
member of a group called Hardcore from Duquesne” that
was purportedly involved in large scale heroin trafficking,
id. at 49:6-7. Based on this information, and given
that the robbery of Corey Thompson allegedly involved a
significant amount of money, Piccini was tasked with
investigating this alleged heroin distribution conspiracy.
See Id. at 49:11-16.
outset of his investigation, Piccini sought out law
enforcement personnel familiar with the Duquesne area and
came in contact with Detectives Mikelonis and Love, as well
as Chief of Police Adams, all of whom provided Piccini with
information about a group of individuals who called
themselves Hardcore Entertainment obtained during a prior
heroin trafficking investigation. See id. at 49-50.
Hardcore Entertainment was a “rap [music] label,
” Jan. 17, 2017 Trial Tr. 69:24-25 (Richard Glenn's
testimony), comprised of “a group of gentlemen that
hung together [and] put some rap videos out, ”
id. at 103:22-24 (Chief of Police Adams'
testimony). Christopher Thompson was determined to be the
leader of Hardcore Entertainment, and other individuals
associated with the group included his younger brother Corey
Thompson, and also Clinton Scott Jr., Jivonte Butler, Donte
Yarbough, Lance Yarbough, and Taiwan Barlow. See id.
at 105; see also id. at 148 (Detective
Mikelonis' testimony). In all, approximately thirty to
forty people were identified as affiliated with Hardcore
Entertainment. Id. at 126:10-14.
evidence of the individuals affiliated with Hardcore
Entertainment who were charged as defendants as a result of
the investigation that preceded the filing of this case, the
government offered photographs depicting Donte Yarbough,
Edward Joseph, Jivonte Butler, Christopher Thompson, Corey
Thompson, Clinton Scott, and Lance Yarbough together. One of
the photographs was a promotional flyer depicting Donte
Yarbough, Christopher Thompson, Clinton Scott, Jivonte
Butler, Lance Yarbough, and Taiwan Barlow, advertising the
rap music Hardcore Entertainment created. See
Gov't Exhibit (“Ex.”) 167; see also
Jan. 17, 2017 Trial Tr. 105:6-25. Another exhibit was a
photograph of these same individuals, among others, standing
outside of the home of Bobby Rogers, which law enforcement
and co-conspirators testified was a location frequented by
members of Hardcore Entertainment. See Gov't Ex.
174. In this photograph, Donte Yarbough and Christopher
Thompson are depicted flashing a “312” signal,
see id., which according to testimony represents the
house number of a residence where multiple members of
Hardcore Entertainment lived when they were younger,
see Jan. 17, 2017 Trial Tr. 107:19- 108:2. Other
photographs included images of large sums of cash, see
e.g., Gov't Exs. 321, 324, 327, 328, 330, and screen
shots of rap videos depicting Christopher Thompson, Corey
Thompson, Jivonte Butler, Taiwan Barlow, Clinton Scott,
Lawrence Short, Lance Yarbough and Raheem Brown with large
amounts of cash and numerous cellular phones, see
e.g., Gov't Exs. 933-50.
to other testimony presented during the trial, Christopher
Thompson established a heroin distribution organization,
wherein Khayri Battle, an individual based in Fort Lee, New
Jersey, supplied heroin to Christopher Thompson and various
members of Hardcore Entertainment for distribution in the
Pittsburgh area. See Jan. 20, 2017 Trial Tr.
33:2-13. Rodney Brown, a co-conspirator who pleaded guilty to
the charged conspiracy in this case, testified that he
assisted Khayri Battle in obtaining the heroin supplied to
Christopher Thompson and his organization. See id.
at 26:6-15. Rodney Brown also confirmed that Shane Brooks,
Taiwan Barlow, and Isaiah Grier, were enlisted as drivers who
would travel from the Pittsburgh area to New Jersey, purchase
or obtain the heroin, and then transport the heroin back to
the Pittsburgh area for distribution. See id. at
26:6-15. According to Rodney Brown, these individuals
transported about 1, 000 bricks of heroin per week between
2008 and 2012. See Id. at 33-34. Corey Thompson
testified that, between 2008 and 2012, the Pittsburgh area
organization was moving “anywhere from probably 500 to
1, 000, [to] 2, 000 bricks [of heroin] . . . weekly.”
Jan. 26, 2017 Trial Tr. 100:8-24. Additionally, Richard
Glenn, a co-conspirator, testified that he frequently
purchased heroin from Christopher Thompson between 2009 and
2011 and that he would generally purchase “around
200” bricks of heroin “probably twice a month,
[or] once [per] month, depending” on his need. Jan.
17, 2017 Trial Tr. 73.
Agent Piccini also “developed an informant-base that
was familiar with the activities of the individuals in
[Hardcore Entertainment].” Jan. 23, 2017 Trial Tr.
51-52. The first enlisted confidential informant was Richard
Jones, a party and rap promoter who developed a relationship
with Clinton Scott and was aware that Scott was involved with
heroin distribution. See id. at 51:21-52:12. Through
Jones, Piccini was able to arrange a controlled
purchase of heroin in February 2011 from Scott.
See id. at 52. Piccini was also able to arrange a
controlled purchase of heroin in July 2011 from Donte
Yarbough, see id. at 53-54, the brother of Lance
Yarbough and the cousin of Anthony Pryor, see Jan.
17, 2017 Trial Tr. 24:5; see also id. at 28:7- 9.
The controlled purchase from Donte Yarbough “occurred
at a hospital . . . because Jivonte Butler had been shot due
to a robbery, something related to drug trafficking[, ] and
was in the hospital.” Jan. 23, 2017 Trial Tr. 53-54.
This controlled purchase resulted in the acquisition of 5
bricks of heroin, which upon forensic testing, amounted to
249 stamped bags containing 7 grams of a substance with a
detectable amount of heroin. See Gov't Exs. 463,
next phase of Piccini's investigation involved preparing
Title III affidavits for the purpose of obtaining subscriber
information for the various telephones used by Clinton Scott,
Corey Thompson, and Donte Yarbough, as well as to intercept
their communications. Jan. 23, 2017 Trial Tr. 66-67. Piccini
and Corey Thompson testified that it was common for
individuals involved in large-scale drug trafficking either
to change their telephone numbers frequently or to carry
multiple cells phones as a means “to thwart law
enforcement.” Id. at 67:13; see also
id. at 67-68; Jan. 26, 2017 Trial Tr. 102:11-16. They
also testified that it was common for drug traffickers to use
language related to marijuana instead of heroin when using
telephones to arrange heroin transactions. See Jan.
17, 2017 Trial Tr. 84:1-15; see also Jan. 26, 2017
Trial Tr. 101:11-21. According to Piccini, these tactical
maneuvers were also used in this case. See Jan. 23,
2017 Trial Tr. 67-68. Nonetheless, the FBI was able to
intercept heroin-related communications of Clinton Scott,
Corey Thompson, and Donte Yarbough for over a period of 30
days. See id. at 67-68.
these intercepted communications, Piccini testified, at times
as an expert, about several key components of the
organization and their efforts to distribute heroin.
See Jan. 23, 2017 Trial Tr. 25-46 (qualifying
Piccini as an expert in heroin trafficking). Piccini
testified that members of the organization sold bricks of
heroin that were comprised of individual stamped bags labeled
with “unique names.” See id. at 84:7-12;
see also id. at 55:19-56:21. Corey Thompson
testified that the labels for the bags were stamped with the
names of movies. See Jan. 26, 2017 Trial Tr. (Part
II) 36:19-22. For instance, some of the stamped bags were
labeled Transformer, Avatar, Lucky 7, and Breightling.
See Jan. 26, 2017 Trial Tr. (Part I) at 114-115.
According to Piccini, the labeling of the stamped bag was
critical, as the labeling was often tied to the quality of
the heroin, and the quality of the heroin was always
important because that is how a distributor determined which
heroin to purchase. See id. at 55-56. Piccini also
testified about the price members of the organization sold
bricks of heroin, see id. at 86:19-24, and that at
times, members would “front” heroin by allowing
customers to purchase the heroin on credit similar to a loan,
see id. at 87:13-17. Richard Glenn and Corey
Thompson corroborated Piccini's testimony regarding the
fronting aspect of the conspiracy. See Jan. 17, 2017
Trial Tr. 80:3-6; see also Jan. 26, 2017 Trial Tr.
noted earlier, the government offered as evidence numerous
intercepted phone calls, recordings, and text messages. Part
of these intercepted communications included telephone calls
on August 12, 2011, between Donte Yarbough and Jeffdyn
Rushton, who at the time of the call held a higher position
in the conspiracy than Donte Yarbough. See Jan. 23,
2017 Trial Tr. 90:1-3. During these conversations, Donte
Yarbough expressed his concerns about the price Jeffdyn
Rushton and Christopher Thompson were seeking for the
purchase of bricks of heroin. See Jan. 24 Trial Tr.
19-23. Also intercepted were a series of text messages
between Donte Yarbough and several customers or lower-level
re-distributors. For example, Donte Yarbough exchanged text
messages with Marlon Robinson regarding a transaction for the
purchase of 3 bricks of Transformer stamped bags of heroin.
See id. at 25-28. Another set of intercepted
communications involved Donte Yarbough facilitating a sale to
Stevie Woods of 7 bricks of Avatar stamped bags of heroin.
See id. at 29-34. Other intercepted communications
also exposed Donte Yarbough negotiating another transaction
with Anthony Coles for the sale of bricks of Breightling
stamped bags of heroin. See id. at 36-37.
intercepted communications concerned Corey Thompson arranging
for a transaction with Jarrell Spring for the purchase of
bricks of Breightling stamped bags of heroin. See
id. at 38-39. Also, some of the intercepted
communications consisted of a set of text messages between
Corey Thompson and Marlon Robinson regarding another
transaction for bricks of both Lucky 7 and Breightling
stamped bags of heroin, as well as a telephone call between
Corey Thompson and Marlon Robinson regarding the quality of
the heroin Marlon Robinson had purchased from Corey Thompson.
See id. at 39-42.
between December 2011 and January 2012, FBI agents and local
law enforcement officials conducted surveillance of a black
Jeep Cherokee that was registered to Shane Brooks.
See Jan. 23, 2017 Trial Tr. 100-102. The
surveillance revealed Isaiah Grier meeting with Christopher
Thompson at Thompson's home, and GPS tracking disclosed
that this Jeep Cherokee made approximately five round trips
between Pittsburgh and New Jersey during this approximate
one-month period of time. See Jan. 23, 2017 Trial
Tr. 101. On January 20, 2012, FBI agents and local Allegheny
County law enforcement officials conducted a traffic stop of
the Jeep Cherokee, which at the time was being driven by
Isaiah Grier and was traveling from the New Jersey area into
the Pittsburgh/Duquesne area. See Jan. 17, 2017
Trial Tr. 112-113 (Chief of Police Adams' testimony);
see also id. at 127:6-12. Isaiah Grier, who was
working on behalf of Khayri Battle, testified that he was
transporting heroin that was to be delivered to Christopher
Thompson. See Jan. 20, 2017 Trial Tr. 124:1-2. A
search of the Jeep Cherokee, which contained a concealed trap
for storing money or drugs, see Jan. 23, 2017 Trial
Tr. 103:5- 15, resulted in the seizure of 226 bricks of
heroin, see Jan. 17, 2017 Trial Tr. 113-14, and
forensic testing of the recovered heroin confirmed the
presence of heroin with a total weight of 339 grams,
see Jan. 23, 2017 Trial Tr. 13-20. Isaiah Grier
estimated that he made approximately five other trips during
which he transported heroin from New Jersey to the Pittsburgh
area, and from his observations, these trips involved a
greater amount of heroin than the amount of heroin recovered
after he was stopped and the Jeep Cherokee was searched by
the authorities. See Jan. 20, 2017 Trial Tr. 124-25.
Neither defendant was present at the time of this event.
See Jan. 17, 2017 Trial Tr. 127:6-12.
February 22, 2012, both Christopher Thompson and Corey
Thompson were arrested. See Jan. 23, 2017 Trial Tr.
105. Christopher Thompson was detained following his arrest,
and Corey Thompson began cooperating with law enforcement
with respect to this investigation. See id. at
105-06. After Christopher Thompson's detention, Donte
Yarbough assumed the leadership role for “the
Pittsburgh portion of the heroin distribution”
operation. Jan. 20, 2017 Trial Tr. 39:1-5. To discuss and
formalize the new hierarchy of the Pittsburgh component of
the operation, Khayri Battle, Rodney Brown, Donte Yarbough,
Lance Yarbough, Jivonte Butler, and Lawrence Short met at a
Dave & Buster's restaurant and arcade in the
Pittsburgh area. See id. at 41:16-24. Another point
of discussion at this meeting was Khayri Battle providing
heroin to Donte Yarbough in return for the money Khayri
Battle owed Christopher Thompson that was not paid before
Christopher Thompson's detention and for any additional
money that Donte Yarbough would provide. See id. at
42:8-18. Rodney Brown recalled another meeting that was held
at a Renaissance Hotel in Newark, New Jersey, where he and
Khayri Battle met with Donte Yarbough, Lance Yarbough,
Jivonte Butler, and several other individuals. See
id. at 45-47. At this meeting, Donte Yarbough gave
Khayri Battle $40, 000 in exchange for heroin. See
id. at 46. Once Donte Yarbough assumed control over the
Pittsburgh component of the heroin distribution operation,
Rodney Brown testified that he supplied Khayri Battle with
approximately 200 to 300 bricks of heroin per week that was
in turn provided to the Pittsburgh component of the
organization. See id. at 48-49.
August 15, 2012, FBI agents and local law enforcement
officials conducted a controlled purchase of 22 bricks of
heroin from Raheem Brown and Courtney Washington with the
assistance of Corey Thompson. See Jan. 24, 2017
Trial Tr. 62. Forensic testing revealed that the purchase
consisted of 38.2 grams of a substance with a detectable
amount of heroin. See Id. at 111-12. Two days later,
pursuant to information received from Corey Thompson that
Raheem Brown was storing heroin in Brown's house,
see Jan. 26, 2017 Trial Tr. 127:20-24, FBI agents
and local Allegheny County law enforcement officials executed
a search warrant at Raheem Brown's residence,
see Jan. 17, 2017 Trial Tr. 114:13-20, who had been
known to “loaf with” individuals associated with
Hardcore Entertainment, id. at 115:1. This search
warrant resulted in the recovery of three firearms,
“$8, 700 in cash, [and] approximately 58 bricks of
heroin.” Id. at 115-16. Forensic testing of
the suspected drugs revealed that the drugs amounted to 65.2
grams of a substance containing a detectable amount of
heroin. See Jan. 20, 2017 Trial Tr. 102-04. Also
recovered during the execution of the search warrant were
three cellular phones, and a search of the cellular phones
revealed multiple photographs of Lance Yarbough, Donte
Yarbough, Clinton Scott, Christopher Thompson, and Taiwan
Barlow, among other individuals, pictured either with Raheem
Brown or individually, that were taken during the life of the
charged conspiracy. See Jan. 18, 2017 Trial Tr. 107.
Other photographs stored on the phones included an image of
Raheem Brown in possession of large sums of money, and images
of unidentified individuals with the tattoo of
“312” on their bodies. See Gov't Ex.
277. Neither defendant was present when Raheem Brown's
residence was searched. See Jan. 17, 2017 Trial Tr.
August 31, 2012, FBI agents and local law enforcement
officials arranged another controlled purchase of 6 bricks of
heroin by Donte Yarbough through Corey Thompson. See
Jan. 24, 2017 Trial Tr. 69-70. Piccini testified that the
manner in which the 6 bricks of heroin was packaged indicated
that the source must have been a “wholesale
source” as opposed to a source that was “selling
individual doses to addict-level purchasers.”
Id. at 71:12-16. Forensic testing revealed that this
packaged material had a weight of 6.6 grams and contained a
detectable amount of heroin. See Jan. 24, 2017 Trial
Tr. 113. On September 6, 2012, FBI agents and local law
enforcement officials arranged another controlled purchase of
heroin from Donte Yarbough by Corey Thompson, resulting in
Donte Yarbough sending Cortez Demery and Willie Means to
deliver 30 bricks of heroin. See id. at 75:1-9; Jan.
18, 2017 Trial Tr. 138-139. Forensic testing revealed that
the 30 bricks amounted to 21.7 grams of a substance that
contained a detectable amount of heroin. See Jan.
24, 2017 Trial Tr. 113-14.
Proof of the Defendants' Involvement With the Alleged
Heroin Distribution Conspiracy
Defendant Lance Yarbough
Thompson testified that he “grew up” with Lance
Yarbough, who “was one of the main persons in the
organization.” Jan. 26, 2017 Trial Tr. 104:5-10.
According to Corey Thompson, Lance Yarbough was “a
trusted member of the organization, ” who sold and
stored heroin for the organization. Id. at
January 4, 2008, Piccini and local law enforcement officials
conducted a traffic stop of a vehicle that was driven by
Willie Means and that was occupied by Jivonte Butler, Clinton
Scott, and Lance Yarbough as passengers. See Jan.
17, 2017 Trial Tr. 133:14-23. During the search of Lance
Yarbough's person, law enforcement recovered “a
Glock .9 millimeter pistol” that was loaded with
“[fifteen] rounds in the magazine and one live round in
the chamber.” Id. at 134. Piccini testified
that “guns were a part of protecting individuals'
drugs . . . and [used for] taking money from other
individuals during heroin transactions.” Jan 26, 2017
Trial Tr. 83:21-23.
1, 2008, Ashley Auston was stopped for speeding while driving
back to the Pittsburgh area after visiting her husband
Michael Milton in New York. See Jan. 18, 2017 Trial
Tr. 10. A search of the vehicle driven by Auston recovered
“in excess of 600 grams of heroin.” Id.
at 10:17-18. Similar to this trip, Auston testified that she
had made several trips to New Jersey to transport heroin to
the Pittsburgh area on behalf of Michael Milton, a “top
dog” in Hardcore Entertainment and a good friend
Christopher Thompson. Id. at 5. She testified that
she made “[p]robably like [twelve] trips” between
2007 and 2008 and that each trip involved transporting
approximately the same amount of heroin. Id. at
11:3-7. Auston further testified that she would bring the
drugs to two primary locations, depending on to whom she was
instructed to deliver the drugs. See id. at 6:4-20.
When Christopher Thompson took over the operation after
Milton was incarcerated in 2007, Auston would bring the
heroin to the “dog pound” where other members of
Hardcore Entertainment, including Corey Thompson, Donte
Yarbough, Jivonte Butler, and Lance Yarbough, would divide
and distribute the heroin among themselves. See id.
at 7-9, 14. Although Auston did not go to the “dog
pound” after her wedding in December 2007, she
testified that at the time of her arrest on May 1, 2008, she
was in route to deliver drugs to Christopher Thompson for his
organization. See id. at 13. Auston did not indicate
the location where the drugs would be delivered to on that
government submitted as evidence several telephone calls
between August 19, 2011 and September 3, 2011, between Lance
Yarbough and Clinton Scott, wherein they voiced their
concerns regarding the organization. See Jan. 24,
2017 Trial Tr. 143-47. Scott was “angry about putting
money in for heroin coming back from New Jersey to Pittsburgh
and not receiving what was owed to him.” Jan. 26, 2017
Trial Tr. 84:8-10. Attempting to pacify Scott, Lance Yarbough
responded by stating that he too was waiting on his
allocation. See Id. 84:10-14. The government also
presented as evidence text messages and telephone calls
between Corey Thompson and Lance Yarbough on August 24, 2011,
and August 25, 2011, which were intercepted on Corey
Thompson's telephone. See Jan. 24, 2017 Trial
Tr. 133-39. On the first call, Corey Thompson asked Lance
Yarbough to inquire about the availability of heroin to
supply one his customers. Id. Lance Yarbough told
Corey Thompson that “miracle mix, ” a combination
of wet heroin and dry heroin, was available for delivery, and
Thompson agreed to take the mixture. Id. at 138.
Also during this call, Thompson informed Lance Yarbough that
he had two customers, Marlon Robinson who wanted 7 bricks of
heroin, and Clarence Carpenter who wanted 50 bricks of
heroin. Id. at 131-33, 138-39. Piccini testified
that the call indicated that Lance Yarbough was acting as a
middle man between Corey Thompson and someone higher up in
the organization, presumably his brother Christopher
Thompson. See id. at 138:3-8. On the second
intercepted call, Lance Yarbough told Thompson to bring
Robinson and Carpenter so that the transactions could be
completed, because the organization was able to supply heroin
to them. See id. at 139:3-5. Piccini testified,
however, that it did not appear that these two transactions
were completed. See Jan. 25 Trial Tr. 40:13-18;
October 4, 2012, Piccini enlisted Richard Jones as a
confidential informant to arrange a purchase of heroin from
Lance Yarbough. See Jan. 24, 2017 Trial Tr. 82-89.
In a recorded conversation, Jones informed Lance Yarbough
that he was seeking to purchase between 40 and 50 bricks of
heroin. See id. at 87. However, this controlled
purchase never occurred. See Id. Then, on October
10, 2012, Lance Yarbough told Jones that he wanted to meet
before executing the transaction. See id. at 88.
Shortly thereafter, FBI agents and local law enforcement
officials conducted surveillance of the apartment building
where Lance Yarbough was residing. See id. at 89.
Video surveillance showed Donte Yarbough entering the
apartment building, see Gov't Ex. 389, and
subsequently leaving the apartment building with Lance
Yarbough and Jivonte Butler, see Gov't Ex. 391.
That same day, FBI agents and Allegheny County law
enforcement authorities conducted a traffic stop of a vehicle
occupied by Donte Yarbough, Lance Yarbough, and Jivonte
Butler, but no drugs were discovered. See Jan. 18,
2017 Trial Tr. 50-51; 77-78.
October 18, 2012, further video surveillance resulted in
Lance Yarbough being observed returning to his apartment
building carrying an H&M store shopping bag. See
Jan. 24, 2017 Trial Tr. 93. Later that day, FBI agents and
Allegheny County law enforcement officials executed a search
warrant at Lance Yarbough's residence. See Jan.
17, 2017 Trial Tr. 121:16- 20. From this search, 125 bricks
of heroin were recovered, see Jan. 24, 2017 Trial
Tr. 99:7-8, which forensic testing identified as 132.9 grams
of a substance containing a detectable amount of heroin,
see id. at 115:18-116:3. Based on the seizure of
this heroin, Lance Yarbough pleaded guilty to possession with
intent to distribute 100 grams or more of heroin.
See Gov't Exs. 487, 513.