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Hollinger v. Reading Health System

United States District Court, E.D. Pennsylvania

January 31, 2017

JAMES N. HOLLINGER Plaintiff,
v.
READING HEALTH SYSTEM, et al., Defendants.

          MEMORANDUM

          STENGEL, J.

         I. INTRODUCTION

         Ten days into his stay as a patient at Reading Hospital, James Hollinger slapped Lydia Davis (one of the hospital's nurses) in the face. Plaintiff was discharged into police custody and charged with assault. He now sues the hospital and doctors that treated him.

         He claims his discharge violated the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (RA) because he is an alcoholic and has related health conditions. While plaintiff's allegations certainly highlight the despondency of alcoholism, they do not present a cognizable claim under either the ADA or RA. Defendant filed a motion to dismiss plaintiff's second amended complaint. I will grant the motion.

         II. FACTUAL BACKGROUND

         On September 9, 2013, the plaintiff, James Hollinger, was admitted to Reading Hospital and Medical Center as a result of alcohol-related seizures. (Doc. No. 36 ¶¶ 15- 20). While at the hospital, plaintiff underwent a CT scan of his brain, which revealed atrophy and ischemia. (Id. ¶¶ 22-23). The same day he was admitted, plaintiff began screaming obscenities at hospital staff and refusing to answer their questions. (Id. ¶ 25).

         Doctors concluded that plaintiff's seizures were due to alcohol withdrawal. (Id. ¶ 30). After being at the hospital several days and displaying “ongoing agitation, ” the hospital started plaintiff on its alcohol withdrawal protocol. (Id. ¶ 32). Doctors increased plaintiff's dose of Ativan in an attempt to alleviate his agitation. (Id. ¶ 33). Throughout his stay, plaintiff showed signs of mental deterioration and memory loss. (Id. ¶¶ 37-40). He was unsteady on his feet and fell several times. (Id. ¶¶ 40-43).

         Psychiatric staff at the hospital recommended that plaintiff be provided one-on-one nursing care. (Id. ¶ 44). Consequently, hospital staff placed alarms on his bed so that they would know if he moved. (Id.) A week into plaintiff's hospital stay, staff continued to note plaintiff's confusion. (Id. ¶ 46). Plaintiff began trying to get out of his bed and became “very impulsive.” (Id. ¶ 47). His confusion and disorientation at this time led a social worker to conclude that he was not ready to be discharged. (Id. ¶¶ 51-55). The social worker recommended appointing a legal guardian for plaintiff and placing him in long-term nursing care. (Id. ¶¶ 54-56).

         Around midnight on September 20, 2013, plaintiff began trying to hit staff members. (Id. ¶ 62). A hospital psychiatrist recommended treating plaintiff with Haldol (an antipsychotic drug) because of his aggression toward staff. (Id. ¶ 65). After continually attempting to hit staff members, plaintiff was eventually successful when he slapped Lydia Davis, a hospital nurse, in the face. (Id. ¶ 67).

         As a result of plaintiff slapping Ms. Davis in the face, hospital staff called the West Reading Police Department. (Id. ¶ 71). Based on their investigation, the police determined that plaintiff could be charged with assault. (Id. ¶ 72). The hospital requested that plaintiff be evaluated for discharge and taken into police custody. (Id. ¶ 73).[1]

         Dr. Robert Jenkins, M.D., evaluated plaintiff for discharge. (Id. ¶ 91). Dr. Jenkins reviewed plaintiff's recent progress notes, spoke with Dr. Sachin Shrestha, M.D., and evaluated plaintiff personally. (Id.) Based on his observations, Dr. Jenkins concluded that plaintiff's delirium had improved but that he continued to be “at high risk of violent behavior.” (Id. ¶ 94). Dr. Jenkins opined that plaintiff was capable of making his own medical decisions. (Id. ¶ 95). Dr. Shrestha, who had also treated plaintiff, agreed with these observations. (Id. ¶ 103). Plaintiff was discharged the evening of September 20, 2013. (Id. ¶ 102).

         The hospital gave plaintiff discharge instructions, directing him to follow-up with his primary care physician and continue taking Ativan. (Id. ¶¶ 111-12). After arriving at the Berks County Prison, plaintiff was prescribed Ativan and placed in suicide restraints. (Id. ¶¶ 119-121). He was eventually charged with aggravated assault for hitting Ms. Davis and spent over 200 days in the prison, where he continued to suffer from alcohol withdrawal symptoms. (Id. ¶¶ 114-124).

         After plaintiff was released from the Berks County Prison, he continued to experience more seizures and other health issues. (Id. ¶¶ 132-33). Plaintiff currently lives in Reading, Pennsylvania. (Id. ¶ 134). The closest emergency room to plaintiff is Reading Hospital. (Id.) There is a different nearby emergency room also located in Berks County. (Id. ¶ 149).

         III. PROCEDURAL HISTORY

         On September 21, 2015, plaintiff filed a complaint against defendant Reading Health System and some of the doctors who treated him while at the hospital. (Doc. No. 1). Plaintiff subsequently amended this complaint. (Doc. No. 15). He brought claims under the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA), the ADA, and § 504 of the RA. He also brought a negligence claim under Pennsylvania law.

         Defendants filed a motion to dismiss the amended complaint, which I granted in part and denied in part. See Hollinger v. Reading Health Sys., Civ. A. No. 15-5249, 2016 WL 3762987 (E.D. Pa. July 14, 2016) (dismissing EMTALA claims with prejudice, ADA and RA claims without prejudice, and denying motion to dismiss negligence claim). I dismissed the ADA claim because plaintiff failed to establish standing. Id. at *11. I dismissed the RA claim because it sounded in medical negligence rather than discrimination. Id. at *13.

         Plaintiff filed a second amended complaint in which he reasserts the ADA, RA, and negligence claims. Defendants filed a motion to dismiss pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6).

         IV. LEGAL STANDARD

         Under Rule 12(b)(6), a defendant bears the burden of demonstrating that the plaintiff has not stated a claim upon which relief can be granted. Fed.R.Civ.P. 12(b)(6); see also Hedges v. United States, 404 F.3d 744, 750 (3d Cir. 2005). In Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544 (2007), the United States Supreme Court recognized that “a plaintiff's obligation to provide the ‘grounds' of his ‘entitle[ment] to relief' requires more than labels and conclusions, and a formulaic recitation of the elements of a cause of action will not do.” Id. at 555. Subsequently, in Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662 (2009), the Supreme Court defined a two-pronged approach to a court's review of a motion to dismiss. “First, the tenet that a court must accept as true all of the allegations contained in a complaint is inapplicable to legal conclusions. Threadbare recitals of the elements of a cause of action, supported by mere conclusory statements, do not suffice.” Id. at 678. Thus, while “Rule 8 marks a notable and generous departure from the hyper-technical, code-pleading regime of a prior era . . . it does not unlock the doors of discovery for a plaintiff armed with nothing more than conclusions.” Id. at 678-79.

         Second, the Supreme Court emphasized that “only a complaint that states a plausible claim for relief survives a motion to dismiss.” Id. at 679. “Determining whether a complaint states a plausible claim for relief will, as the Court of Appeals observed, be a context-specific task that requires the reviewing court to draw on its judicial experience and common sense.” Id. A complaint does not show an entitlement to relief when the well-pleaded facts do not permit the court to infer more than the mere possibility of misconduct. Id.; see also Phillips v. Cnty. of Allegheny, 515 F.3d 224, 232-34 (3d Cir. 2008) (holding that: (1) factual allegations of complaint must provide notice to defendant; (2) complaint must allege facts suggestive of the proscribed conduct; and (3) the complaint's “‘factual allegations must be enough to raise a right to relief above the speculative level.'” (quoting Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555).

         The basic tenets of the Rule 12(b)(6) standard of review have remained static. Spence v. Brownsville Area Sch. Dist., No. Civ. A. 08-626, 2008 WL 2779079, at *2 (W.D. Pa. July 15, 2008). The general rules of pleading still require only a short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief and need not contain detailed factual allegations. Phillips, 515 F.3d at 233. Further, the court must “accept all factual allegations in the complaint as true and view them in the light most favorable to the plaintiff.” Buck v. Hampton Twp. Sch. Dist., 452 F.3d 256, 260 (3d Cir. 2006). Finally, the court must “determine whether, under any reasonable reading of the complaint, the plaintiff may be entitled to relief.” Pinkerton v. Roche Holdings Ltd., 292 F.3d 361, 374 n.7 (3d Cir. 2002).

         V. DISCUSSION

         Plaintiff seeks relief pursuant to Title III of the ADA and § 504 of the RA. Under Title III of the ADA, plaintiff seeks purely injunctive relief. Under the RA, he seeks injunctive and monetary relief.

         A. ADA Claim

         According to plaintiff, defendants violated Title III of the ADA by discharging him prematurely due to his aggression toward staff, which was a manifestation of his alcoholism. Plaintiff also alleges defendants had a custom or practice of “referring all episodes of patient malfeasance and physical contact with staff to police, regardless of whether a given patient presents a threat to safety.” (Doc. No. 36 ¶ 158).

         Defendants move to dismiss plaintiff's ADA claim on two bases. First, they argue plaintiff does not have standing. Second, they argue plaintiff has failed to state a claim for relief under the ADA.

         1. Standing

         The judicial power conferred to federal courts by Article III of the United States Constitution only extends to “cases” or “controversies.” Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555, 560 (1992). This doctrine, known as standing, has three distinct requirements. Id. at 560-61. To satisfy Article III's standing requirements, a plaintiff must demonstrate:

(1) it has suffered an ‘injury in fact' that is (a) concrete and particularized and (b) actual or imminent, not ...

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