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United States v. Brashear

United States District Court, Third Circuit

November 18, 2013



CHRISTOPHER C. CONNER, Chief District Judge.

Presently before the court is the government's motion to quash defendant Jeremy T. Brashear's ("Brashear") subpoena duces tecum. (Doc. 90). For the following reasons, the court will grant the motion.

I. Factual Background[1]

In 2010, Trooper Matt Powell of the Pennsylvania State Police in Indiana, Pennsylvania, conducted an investigation of peer-to-peer file sharing programs that may have contained child pornography. (Doc. 70 at 6). Peer-to-peer file sharing networks enable computer users to share digital files between different network users. (Supp. Hearing Ex. 4). Trooper Powell used a program called Roundup 1.4.1 ("RoundUp") to search files available for sharing in the Gnutella peer-to-peer file sharing network. (Doc. 70 at 8). RoundUp is a modified version of the file sharing software PHEX. (Id. at 26-27). RoundUp utilizes a database of "hash values" from files known to contain child pornography. (Id. at 10). This database enables law enforcement to identify files with hash values that match the hash values of known child pornography. (Id. at 10). RoundUp only identifies computer files that are available for downloading from a folder shared with the Gnutella network. (Id. at 25, 27-28; Supp. Hearing Ex. 1007).

During the course of his investigation, Trooper Powell downloaded two videos from the IP address that contained child pornography. (Doc. 70 at 11). In addition, Trooper Powell identified numerous files associated with child pornography emanating from this same IP address. (Id. at 8). Comcast Cable Communications ("Comcast") controlled the subject IP address. (Id. at 7). Trooper Powell alerted Corporal Thomas Trusal to his findings. (Id. at 6). Accordingly, Corporal Trusal obtained a subpoena ordering Comcast to provide subscriber and billing information for this IP address. (Id. at 14). Based upon an aggregate of investigative materials, including the identification of the registered account holder, Corporal Trusal secured a search warrant for 1651 Kaiser Avenue, South Williamsport, Pennsylvania, 17702. (Id.)

Brashear resided in a trailer on the property of the 1651 Kaiser Avenue residence. As a result of information obtained through the execution of the search warrant, Brashear was arrested. (Id. at 113). Law enforcement eventually secured an additional search warrant for Brashear's trailer and laptop. (Id.) This search revealed child pornography. (Id.)

On February 24, 2011, a grand jury indicted Brashear for distributing, receiving, and possessing material constituting or containing child pornography, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 2252A(a). (Doc. 1). On July 26, 2012, Brashear filed a motion (Doc. 51) to suppress, which the court denied on October 12, 2012. (Doc. 69). On July 25, 2013, Brashear filed an ex parte motion (Doc. 81) for the issuance and service of a subpoena to compel the Pennsylvania State Police ("PSP") to provide the source code for RoundUp. Defense counsel explained that he already obtained the PHEX source code and sought access to the RoundUp source code to compare the two. (Doc. 81 ¶¶ 29-31).

The court granted the motion on July 26, 2013. (Doc. 82). On September 23, 2013, Brashear filed a motion (Doc. 88) to continue trial and jury selection. In support, he averred that, as of that date, the PSP had not produced the required source code.[2] On October 17, 2013, the government filed a motion to quash the subpoena. (Doc. 90). The government alleges that compliance would be unreasonable and oppressive under Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 17(c)(2). (Id. at 2). The motion is fully briefed and ripe for disposition.

II. Discussion

Brashear alleges that his subpoena is necessary to determine whether the use of the RoundUp program violated Brashear's Fourth Amendment rights, the Federal Electronic Communications Privacy Act ("FECPA"), 18 U.S.C. § 1510 et seq, the Pennsylvania Wiretapping and Electronic Surveillance Control Act ("PA Wiretap Act"), 18 Pa. C.S.A. § 5701 et seq, and the Gnutella network protocol.[3] The government asserts that Brashear is attempting to improperly use Rule 17 as a discovery vehicle, that the source code is subject to the law enforcement privilege, and that the information sought is irrelevant because the use of RoundUp did not violate Brashear's Fourth Amendment rights, the FECPA, the PA Wiretap Act, or the Gnutella network protocol.

The issuance of a subpoena is governed by Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 17. To obtain a subpoena under Rule 17, the moving party must establish the following:

(1) that the documents are evidentiary and relevant; (2) that they are not otherwise procurable reasonably in advance of trial by exercise of due diligence; (3) that the party cannot properly prepare for trial without such production and inspection in advance of trial and that the failure to obtain such inspection may tend unreasonably to delay the trial; and (4) that the application is made in good faith and is not intended as a general "fishing expedition."

United States v. Nixon , 418 U.S. 683, 699-700 (1974). The court must reconsider the Nixon standard when disposing of a motion to quash. United States v. Beckford , 964 F.Supp. 1010, 1028 (E.D.Va. 1997).

The court finds that the source code for RoundUp is not relevant because its use did not violate Brashear's Fourth Amendment rights, the FECPA, and the PA Wiretap Act. Further, any violation of the Gnutella network protocol is irrelevant. Thus, the court will not address the application of the law enforcement ...

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