IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA
March 8, 2013
JASON MYERS, PETITIONER :
COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, RESPONDENTS.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: (Judge Jones)
(Magistrate Judge Carlson)
REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION
One of the statutory prerequisites to a state prisoner seeking habeas corpus relief in federal court is that the prisoner must "exhaust the remedies available in the courts of the State." 28 U.S.C. § 2254(b)(1)(A). The instant case presents a model of an unexhausted petition, since the pleadings reveal that there is still active on-going state court post-conviction litigation pending in the petitioner's case. Moreover, it is undisputed that the petitioner is well aware of his obligation to fully exhaust these state court remedies before proceeding in federal court since this is the second unexhausted petition filed by Myers with this court. Furthermore, Myers is also well aware of the consequences which flow from failing to exhaust these state court remedies, since Myers prior unexhausted petition was dismissed by this court in 2010 for failure to exhaust these remedies. In light of the fact that this is undeniably an unexhausted federal habeas corpus petition, the question before this court is how best to address what is currently a premature and procedurally flawed petition. For the reasons set forth below, it is recommended that this petition be dismissed without prejudice to renewal of the petition once the petitioner has properly exhausted his state remedies.
II. Statement of Facts and of the Case
The background of this case was aptly summarized by this court in May of 2010, when we last dismissed one of Myers' federal habeas corpus petitions as unexhausted. At that time we explained that:
Following an incident on April 8 and 9, 2005, during which Myers brutally beat and then sexually assaulted his girlfriend, he was charged with involuntary deviate sexual intercourse, terroristic threats, simple assault, and rape. (SeeDoc. 15, Response, at 2.) A jury trial was held in the Luzerne County Court of Common Pleas on May 2 through 4, 2006, after which the jury convicted Myers of involuntary deviate sexual intercourse, simple assault, and terroristic threats. (See id.) The jury was unable to reach a verdict on the charge of rape, and the trial court declared a mistrial on that charge. (See id.
On August 10, 2006, the trial court conducted a sentencing hearing after which it imposed a sentence of eight and one half (8 1/2 ) to twenty (20) years imprisonment on the count of involuntary deviate sexual intercourse; a consecutive sentence of sixteen (16) months to five (5) years on the count of terroristic threats; and a consecutive sentence of twelve (12) to twenty-four (24) months on the count of simple assault. (See id.)
Myers v. SCI Albion, No. 4:08-CV-100, (Doc. 16, p.p. 2-3.)
In this May 2010 opinion, we also explained that, following this 2006 sexual assault conviction, Myers had actively pursued numerous post-conviction claims in the state courts, none of which had been fully exhausted at the time that we dismissed Myers' first federal habeas corpus petition. (Id.)
Examination of Myers' state court docket, a copy of which is attached as Appendix A to this Report and Recommendation, confirms that this case remains the subject of on-going, and active, state post-conviction litigation, and has been the subject of continuous legal proceedings in both the trial and appellate courts of Pennsylvania since 2010. Thus, it appears from the state court proceedings, that there has been constant and on-going state court litigation of this case since Myers' 2006 conviction, litigation that Myers himself acknowledges is still active and pending. (Doc. 6.)
Thus, at present Myers clearly has not exhausted his state appeals, and remedies under Pennsylvania's Post Conviction Relief Act (PCRA), 42 Pa. C.S.A. §§ 9541, et seq. Myers' petition, therefore, presents us with the paradigm of an unexhausted federal habeas corpus petition, a petition whose claims have not been properly presented and exhausted in the state courts. Since the petitioner has not satisfied this threshold legal requirement prescribed by statute by exhausting his state remedies before proceeding into federal court, we submit that this petition is subject to summary dismissal pursuant to Rule 4 of the Rules Governing Section 2254 Cases in the United States District Courts.
Rule 4 of the Rules Governing Section 2254 Cases in the United States District Courts provides in pertinent part: "If it plainly appears from the petition and any attached exhibits that the petitioner is not entitled to relief in the district court, the judge must dismiss the petition and direct the clerk to notify the petitioner." Rule 4 of the Rules Governing Section 2254 Cases in the United States District Court. In order to obtain federal habeas corpus relief, a state prisoner seeking to invoke the power of this court to issue a writ of habeas corpus must satisfy the standards prescribed by 28 U.S.C. § 2254, which provides in part as follows:
(a) The Supreme Court, a Justice thereof, a circuit judge, or a district court shall entertain an application for a writ of habeas corpus in behalf of a person in custody pursuant to the judgment of a State court only on the ground that he is in custody in violation of the Constitution or laws or treaties of the United States.
(b)(1) An application for a writ of habeas corpus on behalf of a person in custody pursuant to the judgment of a State court shall not be granted unless it appears that--(A) the applicant has exhausted the remedies available in the courts of the State; . . . . . . . . . . . .
(2) An application for a writ of habeas corpus may be denied on the merits, notwithstanding the failure of the applicant to exhaust the remedies available in the courts of the State.
28 U.S.C. § 2254 (a) and (b).
As this statutory text implies, state prisoners must meet exacting substantive and procedural benchmarks in order to obtain habeas corpus relief. At the outset, a petition must satisfy exacting substantive standards to warrant relief. Federal courts may "entertain an application for a writ of habeas corpus on behalf of a person in custody pursuant to the judgment of a State court only on the ground that he is in custody in violation of the Constitution or laws or treaties of the United States." 28 U.S.C. § 2254(a). By limiting habeas relief to state conduct which violates "the Constitution or laws or treaties of the United States," § 2254 places a high threshold on the courts. Typically, habeas relief will only be granted to state prisoners in those instances where the conduct of state proceedings led to a "fundamental defect which inherently results in a complete miscarriage of justice" or was completely inconsistent with rudimentary demands of fair procedure. See, e.g., Reed v. Farley, 512 U.S. 339, 354 (1994). Thus, claimed violations of state law, standing alone, will not entitle a petitioner to § 2254 relief, absent a showing that those violations are so great as to be of a constitutional dimension. See Priester v. Vaughan, 382 F.3d 394, 401-02 (3d Cir. 2004).
Furthermore, state prisoners seeking relief under Section 2254 must also satisfy specific, and precise, procedural standards. Among these procedural prerequisites is a requirement that the petitioner " has exhausted the remedies available in the courts of the State" before seeking relief in federal court. 28 U.S.C. § 2254(b). Section 2254's exhaustion requirement calls for total exhaustion of all available state remedies. Thus, a habeas petitioner "shall not be deemed to have exhausted the remedies available in the courts of the State, within the meaning of this section, if he has the right under the law of the State to raise, by any available procedure, the question presented." 28 U.S.C. § 2254(c). In instances where a state prisoner has failed to exhaust the legal remedies available to him in the state courts, federal courts typically will refuse to entertain a petition for habeas corpus. See Whitney v. Horn, 280 F.3d. 240, 250 (3d Cir. 2002).
This statutory exhaustion requirement is rooted in principles of comity and reflects the fundamental idea that the state should be given the initial opportunity to pass upon and correct alleged violations of the petitioner's constitutional rights. O'Sullivan v. Boerckel, 526 U.S. 838, 844 (1999). As the Supreme Court has aptly observed: "a rigorously enforced total exhaustion rule" is necessary in our dual system of government to prevent a federal district court from upsetting a state court decision without first providing the state courts the opportunity to correct a constitutional violation. Rose v. Lundy, 455 U.S. 509, 518 (1982). Requiring exhaustion of claims in state court also promotes the important goal of ensuring that a complete factual record is created to aid the federal courts in their review of a § 2254 petition. Walker v. Vaughn, 53 F.3d 609, 614 (3d Cir. 1995). A petitioner seeking to invoke the writ of habeas corpus, therefore, bears the burden of showing that all of the claims alleged have been "fairly presented" to the state courts, and the claims brought in federal court must be the "substantial equivalent" of those presented to the state courts. Evans v. Court of Common Pleas, 959 F.2d 1227, 1231 (3d Cir. 1992); Santana v. Fenton, 685 F.2d 71, 73-74 (3d Cir. 1982). A petitioner cannot avoid this responsibility merely by suggesting that he is unlikely to succeed in seeking state relief, since it is well-settled that a claim of "likely futility on the merits does not excuse failure to exhaust a claim in state court." Parker v.Kelchner, 429 F.3d 58, 63 (3d Cir. 2005).
When presented with a plainly unexhausted petition, like the instant petition, the court has several courses available to it. First, the court can dismiss the petition without prejudice, so that the petitioner can either return to state court and totally exhaust his claims, or proceed in federal court on a petition which raises only wholly exhausted issues. Rose v. Lundy, 455 U.S. 509 (1982). This total exhaustion approach facilitates the important goals of federalism and comity that are essential to the exhaustion rule, and allows for complete legal and factual development of these cases in the state legal system before petitions are presented in federal court.
However, because strict compliance with this total exhaustion rule can create procedural dilemmas for a narrow class of petitioners, the courts have adopted another procedure which may be employed in a limited number of cases, a "stay and abeyance" procedure in which the federal habeas petition is stayed pending exhaustion of state remedies by the petitioner. Rhines v. Weber, 544 U.S. 269 (2005). Yet, while granting a stay and abeyance is an available procedure, it is not a preferred course of action in these cases. Because a "stay and abeyance" procedure, if used too frequently, can undermine the policies favoring prompt and orderly resolution of state habeas petitions, the Supreme Court has held that:
[S]tay and abeyance should be available only in limited circumstances. Because granting a stay effectively excuses a petitioner's failure to present his claims first to the state courts, stay and abeyance is only appropriate when the district court determines there was good cause for the petitioner's failure to exhaust his claims first in state court. Moreover, even if a petitioner had good cause for that failure, the district court would abuse its discretion if it were to grant him a stay when his unexhausted claims are plainly meritless.
Rhines v. Weber, 544 U.S. at 277. Therefore, in order to qualify for a stay and abeyance a petitioner should "satisf[y] the three requirements for a stay as laid out in Rhines: good cause, potentially meritorious claims, and a lack of intentionally dilatory litigation tactics." Heleva v. Brooks, 581 F.3d 187, 192 (3d. Cir.2009).
In this case it is evident that the exhaustion doctrine applies to this case since this federal habeas petition clearly contains legal claims which have not exhausted in state court. Given the identity of issues in these two pending cases, Myers' federal pleading is the very model of an unexhausted petition which the court ordinarily should dismiss without prejudice, so that he can either return to state court and totally exhaust these claims, or proceed in federal court on a petition which raises only wholly exhausted issues. Rose v. Lundy, 455 U.S. 509 (1982).
In this case, Myers concedes that the claims in this petition are unexhausted, but urges us to stay, rather than dismiss, this procedurally flawed petition. (Doc. 6.) Myers can avoid the sanction of dismissal and secure a stay only if he can "satisf[y] the three requirements for a stay as laid out in Rhines: good cause, potentially meritorious claims, and a lack of intentionally dilatory litigation tactics." Heleva v. Brooks, 581 F.3d 187, 192 (3d. Cir.2009). Mindful of the fact that "stay and abeyance should be available only in limited circumstances," Rhines v. Weber, 544 U.S. at 277, we recommend that the court find that Myers has not meet the exacting standards prescribed by the Supreme Court in Rhines for a stay pending litigation of these unexhausted state claims.
In this case, we need not reach the question of whether Myers' petition presents "potentially meritorious claims and a lack of intentionally dilatory litigation tactics," Heleva v. Brooks, 581 F.3d 187, 192 (3d. Cir.2009), because we find at the outset that Myers cannot show "good cause" for the entry of a stay in this case. The stay and abeyance procedure adopted by the Supreme Court in Rhines was intended to avoid unfair prejudice to habeas petitioners in those limited cases where completion of the habeas exhaustion requirement might result in an untimely federal petition under the one-year statute of limitations which applies to state habeas actions under 28 U.S.C. § 2244. Given the concerns which motivate this limited stay and abeyance policy, "good cause" typically requires a showing that requiring exhaustion will result in a prisoner's petition being time-barred under § 2244. See Heleva v. Brooks, 581 F.3d 187, 192 (3d. Cir.2009).
In this case, Myers has made no such showing that the statute of limitations would bar his litigation of these claims once he has properly exhausted his state remedies. Quite the contrary, it appears that Myers can fully comply with this exhaustion requirement, without running afoul of the statute of limitations, provided he acts diligently in pursuing these claims.
The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 ("AEDPA"), 28 U.S.C. § 2244 established a one-year statute of limitations on the filing of habeas petitions by state prisoners. In pertinent part, § 2244(d)(1) provides as follows:
A 1-year period of limitation shall apply to an application for a writ of habeas corpus by a person in custody pursuant to the judgment of a State court. The limitation period shall run from the latest of-
(A) the date on which the judgment became final by the conclusion of direct review or the expiration of the time for seeking such review;
(B) the date on which the impediment to filing an application created by State action in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States is removed, if the applicant was prevented from filing by such State action;
(C) the date on which the constitutional right asserted was initially recognized by the Supreme Court, if the right has been newly recognized by the Supreme Court and made retroactively applicable to cases on collateral review; or
(D) the date on which the factual predicate of the claim or claims presented could have been discovered through the exercise of due diligence.
See Miller v. New Jersey State Dept. of Corrections 145 F.3d 616, 617 (3d Cir.1998).
The calculation of this limitations period is governed by a series of well-defined rules. At the outset, these rules are prescribed by statute, specifically 28 U.S.C. § 2244(d)(2), which provides that:
(2) The time during which a properly filed application for State post-conviction or other collateral review with respect to the pertinent judgment or claim is pending shall not be counted toward any period of limitation under this subsection.
See Swartz v. Meyers, 204 F.3d 417, 419 (3d Cir. 2000).
In assessing § 2244(d)(2)'s tolling provision relating to the time when a case is "pending" state review, it is also clear that "the term 'pending' must include the time between a court's ruling and the timely filing of an appeal, [and] 'pending' must include the time during which an appeal could be filed even if the appeal is not eventually filed." Swartz, 204 F.3d at 424. Thus, the courts have construed this tolling provision in a forgiving fashion, one which enables petitioners to toll their filing deadlines for the time periods in which they could have sought further appellate review of their cases, even if they did not, in fact, elect to seek such review. For example, with respect to a petitioner like Haskins, who pursued a direct appeal to the state Supreme Court:
"Section 2244 of AEDPA states that the statute of limitations begins on 'the date on which the judgment [to be reviewed] became final by the conclusion of direct review or the expiration of the time for seeking such review.' 28 U.S.C. § 2244(d)(1)(A). Usually that provision is applied to hold that the limitations period runs from the date when a prisoner's time for seeking certiorari from the United States Supreme Court expired. See, e.g., Kapral v. United States, 166 F.3d 565, 575 (3d Cir.1999)."
Heleva, 581 F.3d at 192-193. Therefore, this statutory tolling period embraces the duration of all of Myers' direct state criminal appeals, plus an additional 90 days to allow for a potential petition for writ of certiorari to the United States Supreme Court. All of this time would be tolled under § 2244(d)(2) from any statute of limitations calculations. See Swartz, 204 F.3d at 419.
Beyond this tolling period mandated by statute, it has also been held that AEDPA's one-year limitations period is not a jurisdictional bar to the filing of habeas petitions; Miller, 145 F.3d at 617-18, and, therefore, is subject to equitable tolling. Id. at 618-19. Yet, while equitable tolling is permitted in state habeas petitions under AEDPA, it is not favored. As the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit has observed: "[E]quitable tolling is proper only when the 'principles of equity would make [the] rigid application [of a limitation period] unfair.' Generally, this will occur when the petitioner has 'in some extraordinary way ... been prevented from asserting his or her rights.' The petitioner must show that he or she 'exercised reasonable diligence in investigating and bringing [the] claims.' Mere excusable neglect is not sufficient." Id. at 18-19 (citations omitted). Indeed, it has been held that only:
[T]hree circumstances permit equitable tolling: if
(1) the defendant has actively misled the plaintiff,
(2) if the plaintiff has in some extraordinary way been prevented from asserting his rights, or
(3) if the plaintiff has timely asserted his rights mistakenly in the wrong forum.
Fahy v. Horn, 240 F.3d 239, 244 (3d Cir. 2001) citing, Jones v. Morton, 195 F.3d 153, 159 (3d Cir.1999) (citations omitted)..
Applying these principles, it is apparent that Myers cannot cite the impending one-year statute of limitations as "good cause" justifying a stay here. When § 2244's statutory tolling provisions are fully considered, it appears that virtually all of the time from Myers' 2006 conviction and sentence, through to the on-going state PCRA proceedings would be tolled for purposes of AEDPA's statute of limitations calculations. While Myers would not be entitled to toll the time period during which this premature federal habeas petition was pending, the filing and litigation of his current state PCRA petition furthers toll this limitations period. Thus, it appears that the tolled time periods in this case falls well within AEDPA's one-year statute of limitations. Therefore, dismissal of this petition without prejudice to Myers fully exhausting his state remedies will enable the petitioner to completely litigate these claims in state court, while still retaining sufficient time to file a federal habeas petition upon timely completion of this state court litigation. Since it appears that Myers can fully exhaust his claims in state court without running afoul of AEDPA's statute of limitations, he has not shown "good cause" justifying a stay and abeyance in this case. Therefore, on the face of the petition it is evident that the petitioner has not met §2254's exhaustion requirement. Moreover, Myers has not provided sufficient justification or excuse for this failure to exhaust his state legal remedies which would warrant foregoing the exhaustion requirement that is plainly prescribed by law. Accordingly, Myers' failure to exhaust these state remedies should not be excused, and his petition for writ of habeas corpus should be dismissed.
For the foregoing reasons, upon consideration of this Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus filed pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2254, and the Response in Opposition to this Petition, IT IS RECOMMENDED as follows:
1. The petitioner's motion for leave to proceed in forma pauperis (Doc. 4.) should be GRANTED; but
2. The Petition should be DISMISSED, without prejudice, Myers' Motion to Stay, (Doc. 6.) should be DENIED and a certificate of appealability should not issue.
The Petitioner is further placed on notice that pursuant to Local Rule 72.3:
Any party may object to a magistrate judge's proposed findings, recommendations or report addressing a motion or matter described in 28 U.S.C. § 636 (b)(1)(B) or making a recommendation for the disposition of a prisoner case or a habeas corpus petition within fourteen (14) days after being served with a copy thereof. Such party shall file with the clerk of court, and serve on the magistrate judge and all parties, written objections which shall specifically identify the portions of the proposed findings, recommendations or report to which objection is made and the basis for such objections. The briefing requirements set forth in Local Rule 72.2 shall apply. A judge shall make a de novo determination of those portions of the report or specified proposed findings or recommendations to which objection is made and may accept, reject, or modify, in whole or in part, the findings or recommendations made by the magistrate judge. The judge, however, need conduct a new hearing only in his or her discretion or where required by law, and may consider the record developed before the magistrate judge, making his or her own determination on the basis of that record. The judge may also receive further evidence, recall witnesses or recommit the matter to the magistrate judge with instructions.
Submitted this 14th day of February, 2013.
Martin C. Carlson
Martin C. Carlson United States Magistrate Judge
© 1992-2013 VersusLaw Inc.