The opinion of the court was delivered by: Timothy R. Rice U.S. Magistrate Judge
As described by its own director of security, the Boeing Company's Ridley Park facility was a mess five years ago. Some work areas were openly littered with drug paraphernalia. Special Agent Raymond Carr of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ("FBI") described prescription drug abuse among Boeing workers as an "epidemic." To make matters worse, Boeing apparently was unable to negotiate a collective bargaining agreement with the United Auto Workers Union ("UAW") that would have allowed it to randomly test employees for prescription drug abuse on the job.*fn1
All of this transpired while the United States was fighting a war on two fronts -- our nation's most expansive military initiative since World War II. As U.S. soldiers sacrificed their lives in battle, Boeing workers -- some of whom were trafficking in, and abusing, prescription drugs on the job -- were manufacturing some of the most sophisticated helicopter weaponry in the world: the V-22 Osprey and the CH-47 Chinook.
Following a joint investigation by the FBI and the Drug Enforcement Administration, dozens of Boeing employees have been charged with, and many convicted of, either distributing or attempting to illegally possess prescription drugs at Boeing's Ridley Park facility between 2007 and 2011. As sentencing approaches for those convicted of attempted possession of illegal prescription drugs, defendants William Wallace Wilson, Andy Duris, Michael Homer, Jeffrey Lynn Forbes, Thomas Alfred Lees, Vincent Joseph Demsky, George Anthony Torres, III, James Swan, John Francis Shalkowski, Michael Patterson, Victor Phillip, and William Brian Summers seek special pre-judgment probation under 18 U.S.C. § 3607(a).*fn2 This unique statute allows first-time, misdemeanor drug offenders to obtain dismissal of the proceedings upon successful completion of a probationary term lasting up to one year.
The government has filed a blanket opposition to all § 3607 requests and urges me to exercise my broad discretion to deny special probation to all Boeing defendants for a variety of reasons, primarily the critical role the company and its employees play in our national defense. During a two-day hearing on the pending motions, the government offered testimony by eight witnesses, including Agent Carr, Boeing employees, and cooperating defendants who used and sold prescription drugs at the Ridley Park facility. Counsel agree that the requests of Duris, Swan, Patterson, and Phillip are now ripe for consideration.*fn3 For the reasons that follow, I will grant the requests of Duris and Phillip, but deny the requests of Swan and Patterson.
Our nation has long struggled to reconcile its war-time patriotism and quest for national security with its need to safeguard individual liberty, due process, and a sense of fairness. See Boumediene v. Bush, 553 U.S. 723 (2008) (ruling Military Commission Act unconstitutional and granting Guantanamo Bay detainees habeas corpus privileges); Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944) (upholding order requiring Japanese-Americans in "military areas" on the west coast to evacuate their homes and submit to military control); Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47, 52 (1919) (finding the right to free speech to be limited during World War I, reasoning "[w]hen a nation is at war many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured"). As explained further below, a blanket denial of special probation to a class of defendants working in the defense industry is inconsistent with the principle of individualized sentencing. See 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a). This is especially critical here, because the government has offered little evidence that any individual offenders jeopardized national security by producing defective weaponry, or were cited for poor work performance at Boeing. The critical role of Boeing's work in our national defense is only one factor in the § 3607 determination; it cannot serve as a talisman that overrides the intent of Congress to afford first-time, misdemeanor drug offenders a rare opportunity for redemption.
I must consider the individual circumstances of each defendant in the larger context of drug abuse at Boeing. For example, some defendants became unwittingly addicted to pain medication following surgery or serious injury, have led otherwise crime-free lives, and performed years of unblemished service at Boeing. Their cases fall squarely within the heartland of what Congress envisioned when it enacted § 3607. Others, however, merit denial because they abused leadership positions at Boeing, sold drugs for profit, continued to offend after receiving an opportunity for redemption through a state or local first-time-offenders program, or refused to confront the serious nature of their crimes.
Like most companies, Boeing has a policy prohibiting the use, possession, and sale of controlled substances and drug paraphernalia on its property. Employees are subject to drug testing based on "reasonable suspicion" and after involvement in serious accidents.*fn5 Boeing does not fire an employee after a positive drug test. Rather, the worker receives a Compliance Notification Memorandum placing conditions on his continued employment, which remain in effect for three years and include drug treatment pursuant to a Substance Abuse Recovery Plan.*fn6
Similarly, an employee facing termination based on attendance or work quality problems is permitted to keep his job with Boeing if he voluntarily admits the problems stem from substance abuse and successfully completes drug treatment. In these instances, the company is aware of, and monitors, the employee's treatment.
Boeing's drug policy also includes a generous Employee Assistance Program ("EAP"), which permits workers to voluntarily, confidentially, and at the company's expense, seek treatment for substance abuse issues. An employee who avails himself of drug treatment through EAP retains his job and may collect disability benefits -- also at the company's expense -- if he seeks them. Neither Boeing nor any future employers are made aware of the employee's problem or treatment. There is no limit on the number of times an employee may utilize EAP services. Signs and posters designed to remind employees of the EAP and its purpose were included on both Boeing and UAW billboards throughout the Ridley Park facility.
Robert Fasold, a former police detective, has been the director of corporate security at Boeing's Ridley Park facility since 2003. By 2005, based on tips from employees, a number of on-the-job assaults and accidents, a scrap-metal theft problem, and drug paraphernalia he recovered in work areas, Fasold suspected there was wide-spread drug abuse among workers at the facility.*fn7 In 2006, he asked UAW leadership for help addressing the problem. When drug abuse at Boeing persisted, Fasold sought assistance from the Delaware County District Attorney's Office and, eventually, from the FBI.
Agent Carr, an experienced drug investigator, began investigating the use and sale of illegal drugs at the Boeing Ridley Park facility in 2007. After interviewing workers, developing confidential informants, and setting up undercover purchases, Agent Carr identified approximately two dozen individuals who were illegally selling oxycodone and fentanyl at the facility. Some of those individuals agreed to cooperate with the investigation. They were asked to wear audio and video recording devices and sell placebos drugs so that Agent Carr could identify individuals who bought and used the illegal painkillers on the job.*fn8 Despite the "epidemic" nature of the drug problem at the Ridley Park facility, Agent Carr testified he could not recall anyone at Boeing complaining of increased quality control problems or citing such concerns as a reason for initiating the investigation, and those issues were never the focus of his investigation.
Three sellers of illegal drugs who were identified, arrested, and charged as a result of Agent Carr's investigation described the atmosphere at the Ridley Park facility during the years leading up to their arrests. Stephen Ellis testified that, after two years working at the facility, he began getting painkillers from his friends so that he could sell them at work, because he recognized there was "a market" for illegal prescription drugs among his Boeing co-workers. He sold to a total of about thirty customers, making between fifteen and twenty sales -- a total of thirty-to-sixty pills -- each week. According to Ellis, he observed visible, physical signs of onthe-job drug use among his co-workers on a nearly daily basis.
Jonathan Sullivan testified he became addicted to prescription painkillers after having dental surgery and experiencing a knee injury. He recognized signs of the drug problem at Boeing within his first week of training there in 2009. When he began illegally using painkillers, he had little trouble discovering which co-workers used and sold them. Over time, he went from taking five-milligram pills once a day, to taking larger doses every four hours. Although prescription pain pills were the most commonly abused drug among his co-workers, he testified he used cocaine at work once, and he knew other employees occasionally used marijuana, cocaine, and nitrous oxide. Some employees also illegally used and sold suboxone. He estimated twenty-five percent of the employees assigned to his work area during his shifts used illegal drugs at work.
Sullivan sold pain pills to support his own habit, and also sometimes traded work for pills -- i.e., he agreed to do another worker's tasks in addition to his own. According to Sullivan, he was "Superman" when he was taking pills. He claimed he worked harder and faster, had more energy, and had difficulty performing his duties only when he stopped taking pills and experienced withdrawal. Sullivan had "not one iota" of concern about the quality of the work he performed while using painkillers. In July 2011, however, Sullivan realized he had a drug problem and took advantage of Boeing's EAP program. He testified he has been drug-free ever since.
Charles Haux became addicted to prescription painkillers after taking them to treat a broken thumb in 2006. Haux testified he bought, used, and sold illegal prescription drugs at the Ridley Park facility. He used the drugs about three times each day in order to avoid suffering painful withdrawal symptoms, and also made between five and ten sales each day. His customers included Duris, Swan, Patterson, and Phillip. After he was identified as a seller by Agent Carr, Haux agreed to cooperate with the investigation. During the course of his cooperation, he sold placebo pills or lollipops to each of the four defendants at least once, capturing each transaction on videotape. Haux testified he was an "excellent" employee, even while using drugs on the job. When asked whether any of his supervisors ever expressed concern about the quality of his work, Haux responded: "They loved me."
Dr. George Downs, a professor and Dean Emeritus of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy at the University of the Sciences, testified as an expert in pharmacy with a specialty in substance abuse issues. According to Dr. Downs, abuse of opiates causes more deaths per year in the United States than car accidents. See also Timothy W. Martin, Bill Aims to Deter Painkiller Abuse, Wall St. J., July 19, 2012, at A6 ("[T]he nation's growing addiction to prescription painkillers . . . killed more people in 2011 than heroin and cocaine combined."). Dr. Downs opined that prescription drug abuse would not result in increased energy, strength, or efficiency. Even a person taking such drugs pursuant to a valid prescription would be required to restrict activities like driving and use of heavy ...