The opinion of the court was delivered by: Joyner, C.J.
Before this Court are Defendant/Counter Claimant Long Term Disability Income Plan for Choices Eligible Employees of Johnson & Johnson's ("LTD Plan") Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. Nos. 17-19), Plaintiff/ Counter Defendant's Response in opposition thereto (Doc. No. 23), and Defendant/Counter Claimant's Reply (Doc. No. 24). For the reasons set forth in this Memorandum, the Court grants the Motion for Summary Judgment and enters judgment in favor of Defendant/Counter Claimant LTD Plan.
Plaintiff Doreen Gage worked for Johnson & Johnson as a Process Quality Analyst. As an employee, she participated in the Johnson & Johnson Long Term Disability Plan (hereinafter "LTD Plan"), which is funded entirely by employee contributions. The parties agree that the LTD Plan is an "employee welfare benefit plan" within the meaning of §3(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, 29 U.S.C. § 1002(1)("ERISA"). Defendant LTD Plan grants discretion to the Johnson & Johnson Pension Committee ("Pension Committee") to serve as plan administrator and make all final benefit determinations. Administrative Record ("A.R.") 1051-52. At the time relevant to this litigation, the LTD Plan retained the Reed Group ("Reed") to facilitate the claims administration process.
Plaintiff's history of disability benefits is complicated as her health conditions resulted from her involvement in three separate motor vehicle accidents. On March 26, 2007, Plaintiff's car was rear-ended on the highway. After this accident, she took an extended absence from her position at Johnson & Johnson while seeking treatment for neck and lower back injuries. She began receiving short term disability benefits on April 13, 2007.
A.R.25. Dr. Ashok Thanki, a neurological surgeon, performed an independent medical evaluation of Plaintiff on September 24, 2007 and determined that Plaintiff was not able to fully perform her job functions at that time. Dr. Thanki felt Plaintiff's inability to work was temporary, but couldn't propose a specific date of return to work. A.R.838. Based on this evaluation, Plaintiff was approved for long term disability benefits on October 17, 2007.
Approximately a year later and while still on disability leave, Plaintiff was involved in another rear-end automobile collision on March 24, 2008. Following this accident, she complained of an increase in her prior neck and back pain, and newly developed occipital headaches. Plaintiff continued to receive LTD benefits.
On September 3, 2008, June Lewandowski, a physical therapist, conducted a Functional Capacity Evaluation ("FCE") and determined that Plaintiff was able to perform the tasks required in a light duty occupation. A.R.652-57. However, shortly afterward, on September 15, 2008, Plaintiff was involved in a third motor vehicle accident. This time Plaintiff's car was reportedly struck in the aftermath of a collision between two other cars at an intersection. On the date of the accident, Plaintiff was taken to the emergency room, where they performed a lumbar spine x-ray, which was documented as normal, and brain and cervical CT scans, which showed no evidence of acute intracranial hemorrhage or mass effect, or of acute fracture or listhesis in the cervical spine. A.R.148. There did appear to be a moderate disc bulge at C5-6. A.R.994. Plaintiff was diagnosed with cervical and lumbar strain, discharged home and prescribed pain medication. A.R.68. This most recent accident prompted further review of Plaintiff's health conditions and her continued eligibility for LTD benefits.
Since the initial accident in March 2007, Plaintiff has undergone various forms of treatments for her neck and back injuries, including chiropractic care, epidural steroid injections, prescribed pain medications, acupuncture, and physical therapy. She has been examined by an array of providers in an array of medical specialties. She has likewise undergone examinations and treatments for her mental and behavioral health issues. Rather than relay Plaintiff's extensive medical records in great detail, we confine our review, and thus this case history, to the relevant issue before us: Plaintiff's disability status as of September 15, 2009. At that point, all agree that Plaintiff had been receiving disability benefits for longer than twelve months, and by the LTD Plan's terms, would only qualify for further benefits if she remained unable to perform any job that she was already, or could reasonably become, qualified to perform with or without reasonable accommodations. *fn1 The LTD Plan determined that Plaintiff no longer met this definition and accordingly denied her LTD benefits; Plaintiff has continued to challenge this decision through administrative appeals and now this civil action.
Plaintiff's Medical History Following Third Car Accident
Shortly after the third car accident, on October 1, 2008, Dr. Alexander Pendino, a neurologist, conducted an independent medical evaluation of Plaintiff. Dr. Pendino felt that Plaintiff was not capable of returning to work on either a part-time or full-time basis given the recent trauma, which had re-aggravated Plaintiff's underlying myofacscial injury. A.R.70. Dr. Pendino diagnosed Plaintiff as having cervical strain/sprain, lumbar strain/sprain, thoracic strain/sprain, post-reactive anxiety and depression, and chronic narcotic dependency. A.R.140. But, he further stated that Plaintiff's neurological status was "stable without discrete upper or lower motor neuron dysfunction" and that he saw "no discrete evidence of cervical or lumbar radiculopathy by clinical neurological examination." A.R.148-49. Dr. Pendino determined Plaintiff should continue physical therapy three times per week for six weeks, at which time she would "be able to re-enter the work force on a part-time basis in her previous occupation three hours per day for a week and increasing to a full eight hour workday over a three week period." A.R.70.
Around the same time, Plaintiff sought an evaluation from Dr. Adam Sackstein. Dr. Sackstein did not identify any objective focal neurological deficits during the physical examination, however, recommended diagnostic radiological studies and an extensive course of spine injection procedures. A.R.231-34. Plaintiff subsequently underwent a series of trigger point and occipital nerve injections from November 2008 until February 2009. She continued to see Dr. Sackstein for cervical and lumbar facet injections, as well as epidural steroid injections at times, on a regular basis throughout 2009. A.R.199-230.
On January 15, 2009, Dr. Barbara Baer, a neuropsychologist, conducted an independent medical evaluation of Plaintiff. Dr. Baer agreed that Plaintiff suffered from major depressive disorder- moderate without psychotic symptoms, and as a result experienced reduced speed on cognitive tasks, fatigue, poor appetite, poor sleep and weight loss. A.R.268-75. Dr. Baer indicated that Plaintiff did not have a functional impairment that would prevent her from working in any capacity from a neuropsychological perspective. Plaintiff was able to return to work on a part-time basis, four hours per day, although her cognitive efficiency should be re-evaluated after six months. At the time of Dr. Baer's evaluation, Plaintiff had been involved in ongoing psychotherapy with Dr. Lee Picariello, a licensed psychologist, and Lynne Taylor, a licensed professional counselor and biofeedback therapist, since October 2008. Dr. Baer also recommended a psychiatric evaluation for medication management.
On February 27, 2009, Dr. Picarello and Ms. Taylor agreed with the conclusion that Plaintiff would benefit from a psychiatric evaluation. They reported that Plaintiff suffered from major depressive disorder-single episode severe, accompanied by severe headaches and pain in her neck, back and eyes. Plaintiff cried frequently in sessions, struggled to control her emotions and to manage daily activities, and experienced cognitive difficulties. They also concluded that "in [their] opinion, to a reasonable degree of psychological certainty, [Plaintiff] [was] severely emotionally impaired and not able to return to work in the foreseeable future." A.R.258.
Dr. Thomas Bills, who appears to be an orthopedic surgeon, examined Plaintiff on March 13, 2009. Dr. Bills noted that Plaintiff had a full range of motion of her thoracic and lumbar spine, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees and ankles.
A.R.238-40. Dr. Bills detected no paraveretebral spasms in her spine or atrophy in her extremities. Dr. Bills analyzed CAT scans of Plaintiff's lumbar spine, which was negative, and her cervical spine, which showed a bulging disc at C5-6. He concluded that Plaintiff cervical, thoracic, and lumbar strains with a left sided cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. A.R.138.
On May 21, 2009, Plaintiff underwent a psychiatric evaluation with Dr. Harry Zall, who indicated that after the third motor vehicle accident Plaintiff demonstrated significant declines in her emotional stability, including symptoms of depression and acute anxiety. A.R.551-53. She was diagnosed with a major depressive disorder and an anxiety disorder, and prescribed an antidepressant medication.
Then, on July 30, 2009, Dr. Kenneth Kutner conducted a neuropsychological evaluation of Plaintiff and concluded that she did not suffer from a neuropsychological condition that would prevent her from working. A.R.530-38. Before reaching this conclusion, Dr. Kutner performed neuropsychological testing, determined there was no evidence of any significant cognitive impairment, and diagnosed Plaintiff with major depressive disorder in partial remission and panic disorder in partial remission. A.R.141. Dr. Kutner felt Plaintiff was able to work an eight-hour day because her cognitive capacity was intact and, "while presenting features of depression, she did not manifest psychomotor retardation, severe depression, or social withdrawal." A.R.537.
Based on the results of these medical evaluations, Reed determined that Plaintiff no longer qualified for LTD Plan benefits as of September 15, 2009, and advised Plaintiff of this in a letter dated August 6, 2009. Plaintiff appealed this determination. A.R.198. In support of this appeal, Plaintiff submitted a copy of a report from her treating physician, Dr. William Bonner, as well as the deposition summary taken on August 5, 2009.
Dr. Bonner had reviewed the evaluation completed by Dr. Kutner, and submitted a short note concluding that he was "of the opinion within a reasonable degree of medical certainty that [Plaintiff] was not able to return to her place of employment."
A.R.150. Dr. Picariello, Plaintiff's treating psychologist, indicated in a progress note dated September 25, 2009 that Plaintiff appeared lethargic during sessions, continued to reveal feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, and was working on coping with areas of life that exacerbated her stress and pain.
A.R.156. Dr. Picariello indicated that Plaintiff was still receiving psychotherapy, continued to have "a great deal of difficulty controlling her emotions and struggle[d] to complete her activities of daily living without having to take frequent breaks." A.R.998.
The record also contains a handwritten, unsigned note dated
September 18, 2009 that is difficult to discern. A.R.191-93. Plaintiff
alleges, and for our current purposes we accept, that it was written
by her treating psychiatrist, Dr. Zall. Dr. Zall noted his adjustment
of Plaintiff's psychiatric medication. He also stated that Plaintiff's
psychiatric ongoing symptoms seemed to have partially diminished
in severity...However, her pain remains substantial and its
intensification on and off triggers emotional distress. I believe that
her returning to work at this time would have associated high