The opinion of the court was delivered by: Joyner, J.
Bankruptcy No. 09-10473 (Jointly Administered with Bankruptcy No. 09-10474)
This is an appeal from the April 2, 2010 Memorandum and Report of U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Bruce Fox recommending that this Court dismiss Counts I through VII of the plaintiff's adversary complaint and ordering the dismissal of Count VIII of the complaint for failure to state a cause of action. For the reasons which follow, we shall affirm and adopt the analysis and rationale of the Bankruptcy Court's Memorandum and Report in large measure but we shall nevertheless reverse that part of the order and recommendation which declines to afford the debtor-plaintiffs the opportunity to amend their pleading.
South Canaan Cellular Equity LLC ("SCCE") and South Canaan Cellular Investments, Inc. ("SCCI"), the debtors in these matters, are both limited liability companies formed for the purpose of holding partnership interests in South Canaan Cellular Communications Company, LP ("SCCCC"). SCCCC is a limited partnership which is in the business of providing wireless communications services in Wayne and Pike County, Pennsylvania. SCCE owns 39.8% of SCCCC and SCCI holds a 1% interest in SCCCC and acts as its general partner. SCCCC's two other limited partners are South Canaan Cellular Telephone ("SCTC"), which owns a 10.2% interest, and SCCTC, a Delaware Corporation which holds a 49% interest. Neither SCTC nor SCCTC are debtors in this action.
The two debtor entities are owned by several families and individuals, with no single member or group of members owning a controlling interest. The Edwards family owns approximately 34% of both SCCI and SCCE. Frank Coughlin, who is one of the defendants in the instant adversary action (along with Lackawaxen Telecom, Inc. ["LTI"] of which he is President), also holds a 30.8% interest in both; the Cook family owns approximately 20.1%, the Copp family holds an interest of some 5.4%, the Swingles own approximately 4.65%, Linda Haagen owns 4.5%, and the Miller family holds an interest of less than 1%. Carolyn Copp is the Chairman, sole member of the Board of Managers and President of SCCI and the Chairman of the Board of Managers and President of SCCE; both entities have Ms. Copp's personal residence in West Chester, Pennsylvania as their principal place of business.
In October 2000, SCCE and SCCI entered into a master loan agreement and supplement with Co Bank ACB in the amount of $7.5 million. In exchange for the loan, the debtor entities gave Co Bank a promissory note in that amount and granted security interests in all of their property including their newly-acquired interests in SCCCC. The monies were used to acquire SCCE and SCCI's interests in the SCCCC limited partnership and to upgrade SCCCC's wireless system. Under the terms of the loan, the outstanding principal balance was to be repaid in 26 consecutive quarterly payments on the 20th day of January, April, July and October of each year commencing in October 2002 and ending in January 2009. Although the debtors initially made the required interest only and two of the quarterly payments due under the loan, they defaulted on their repayment obligations in May 2003.
Despite the default, Co Bank did nothing to foreclose on the note. In or around July 2007, the debtors began negotiating with Co Bank to restructure the loan; the bank initially indicated that it was interested in either a shorter restructured repayment plan or a discounted cash settlement amount. In September 2007, Co Bank advised that it would not settle for less than $5 million and that it was considering a sale of the note. Thereafter, in October 2007, SCCE and SCCI informed Co Bank that they intended to secure the $5 million necessary to purchase the loan and began making arrangements to do so through two lenders. However, on October 25, 2007, Co Bank sold the note to LTI.
The debtors allege in their adversary complaint that "using the confidential information he had acquired as a result of his standing as a member of SCCE and SCCI," Frank Coughlin arranged for LTI*fn2 to purchase the loan from Co Bank for the sum of $5.25 million "with terms substantially similar to those offered by Co Bank to South Canaan." (Adversary Complaint, Exhibit 1 at ¶26). In so doing, the debtors aver that Mr. Coughlin exploited the "precarious but improving financial circumstances of the Debtors for his own benefit and that of LTI," and "deprived the Debtor of an economic opportunity that was critical to its financial survival." (Adversary Complaint, ¶s23, 27). Additionally, "Coughlin's actions were also prompted by a second motive, namely, a desire to seize control of the operations of the profitable SCCCC by taking control of the partnership interests in the company that SCCI and SCCE, along with SCTC, had pledged as security for the Co-Borrower loan." (Adversary Complaint, ¶27).
The complaint further avers that although the debtors assert that they have submitted proposals to and endeavored to negotiate with LTI for the restructure of the loan, their offers have all been rejected because of Coughlin and LTI's insistence upon being in control of SCCCC as a condition of any settlement. (Adversary Complaint, ¶28-¶30). On January 23, 2009, LTI and Coughlin declared the debtors to be in default, demanded the right to exercise the partnership interests of the co-borrowers to seize control of SCCCC, and filed a complaint in the District Court for the City and County of Denver, Colorado seeking unpaid principal of $7,120,413 plus interest and counsel fees and seeking relief in the form of a declaration of their purported right to exercise control over the Debtors' interests in SCCCC. After the debtors commenced their bankruptcy proceedings, LTI filed a claim in the amount of $13,543,231.78 against the debtors in that action on June 2, 2009. (Adversary Complaint, ¶s32-33).
On July 9, 2009, the debtors instituted this adversary action against both LTI and Frank Coughlin, asserting seven counts against Mr. Coughlin individually -- for breach of the duty of loyalty, breach of the duty of candor/disclosure, usurpation of business opportunity, breach of the duty of good faith, breach of the duty of care, breach of fiduciary duty and breach of the duty of good faith and fair dealing. The final count (VIII) of the adversary complaint asserted a claim for aiding and abetting against LTI only. By his Memorandum and Report dated March 25, 2010, Bankruptcy Judge Fox granted the defendants' motion to dismiss Count VIII against LTI and recommended the dismissal of the seven counts against Frank Coughlin. It is this decision and recommendation that the plaintiffs here appeal.*fn3
This Court has jurisdiction over this appeal pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §158(a), which states:
The district courts of the United States shall have ...