The opinion of the court was delivered by: Judge Conner
This is a diversity action sounding in breach of contract, unjust enrichment, intentional interference with contractual relations, alter ego liability, and civil conspiracy, filed by plaintiff USTAAD Systems, Incorporated ("USTAAD"). USTAAD claims that defendant Cap Computer Consultants, Incorporated ("CCC") and its president and sole shareholder, defendant Carlos Aguado ("Aguado"), breached the terms of a contract and improperly recouped monies to which USTAAD is entitled. Presently before the court is a motion to dismiss three of the complaint's six counts for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. (See Doc. 3.) For the reasons that follow, the motion will be granted in part and denied in part.
I. Statement of Facts*fn1
USTAAD is a technology company that owns proprietary software known as the "Rigel Software System" ("Rigel"). (Doc. 1, Ex. A ¶ 7.) On September 28, 2004, USTAAD entered into an exclusive agreement with Branch Electric ("Branch"),*fn2 wherein Branch obtained a license to use Rigel and USTAAD contracted to provide maintenance, customer support, and enhancement services for the software. (Id. ¶¶ 11-12, 20.) Around the same time, USTAAD entered into a contract with CCC wherein CCC agreed to assume USTAAD's obligation to provide customer support, maintenance, and software modification services to Branch under the USTAAD-Branch licensing agreement. (Id. ¶¶ 16-17, 23.) According to the complaint, customer support and maintenance fees due under the USTAAD-Branch contract remained payable to USTAAD, and the services performed by CCC were completed on USTAAD's behalf.*fn3 (See id. ¶¶ 22-23.)
In or about August of 2007, USTAAD allegedly discovered that CCC was collecting fees from Branch in exchange for its software support services. (Id. ¶ 26.) USTAAD contends that such an arrangement violated its agreement with CCC.
Accordingly, on May 20, 2009, USTAAD filed a complaint in the York County Court of Common Pleas, asserting, inter alia, that "CCC and [Aguado] . . . engaged in a course of conduct calculated to advance their own economic and business interests to the detriment of USTAAD." (Id. ¶ 25.) CCC and Aguado removed the action to federal court on June 17, 2009. (Doc. 1.)
The complaint contains a total of six separate counts accusing CCC of breach of contract, and CCC and Aguado of unjust enrichment, intentional interference with contractual relations, and of engaging in a civil conspiracy to appropriate profits belonging to USTAAD. In addition, USTAAD characterizes CCC as an alter ego of Aguado and therefore seeks to pierce CCC's corporate veil and to hold its shareholders-namely, Aguado-personally liable for CCC's corporate conduct. On June 22, 2009, CCC and Aguado filed a motion to dismiss three of the complaint's six counts for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. (See Doc. 3.) The motion has been fully briefed and is now ripe for disposition.
Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure provides for the dismissal of complaints that fail to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. FED. R. CIV. P. 12(b)(6).
When ruling on a motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6), the court must "accept all factual allegations as true, construe the complaint in the light most favorable to the plaintiff, and determine whether, under any reasonable reading of the complaint, the plaintiff may be entitled to relief." Gelman v. State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co., 583 F.3d 187, 190 (3d Cir. 2009) (quoting Phillips v. County of Allegheny, 515 F.3d 224, 233 (3d Cir. 2008)); see also Kanter v. Barella, 489 F.3d 170, 177 (3d Cir. 2007) (quoting Evancho v. Fisher, 423 F.3d 347, 350 (3d Cir. 2005)). Although the court is generally limited in its review to the facts contained in the complaint, it "may also consider matters of public record, orders, exhibits attached to the complaint and items appearing in the record of the case." Oshiver v. Levin, Fishbein, Sedran & Berman, 38 F.3d 1380, 1384 n.2 (3d Cir. 1994); see also In re Burlington Coat Factory Sec. Litig., 114 F.3d 1410, 1426 (3d Cir. 1997).
Federal notice and pleading rules require the complaint to provide "the defendant notice of what the . . . claim is and the grounds upon which it rests." Phillips, 515 F.3d at 232 (quoting Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007)). To test the sufficiency of the complaint in the face of a Rule 12(b)(6) motion, the court must conduct a two-step inquiry. In the first step, the factual and legal elements of a claim should be separated; well-pleaded facts must be accepted as true, while mere legal conclusions may be disregarded. Fowler v. UPMC Shadyside, 578 F.3d 203, 210-11 (3d Cir. 2009). Once the well-pleaded factual allegations have been isolated, the court must determine whether they are sufficient to show a "plausible claim for relief." Ashcroft v. Iqbal, --- U.S. ---, 129 S.Ct. 1937, 1950 (2009) (citing Twombly, 550 U.S. at 556); Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555 (requiring plaintiffs to allege facts sufficient to "raise a right to relief above the speculative level"). A claim "has facial plausibility when the plaintiff pleads factual content that allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged." Iqbal, --- U.S. at ---, 129 S.Ct. at 1949. When the complaint fails to establish defendant liability, however, courts should generally grant plaintiffs leave to amend their claims before dismissing a complaint that is merely deficient. See Grayson v. Mayview State Hosp., 293 F.3d 103, 108 (3d Cir. 2002); Shane v. Fauver, 213 F.3d 113, 116-17 (3d Cir. 2000).
The instant motion seeks dismissal of three of the complaint's six counts.
Specifically, CCC and Aguado have moved to dismiss (1) Count Three, which purports to state a claim against Aguado for unjust enrichment; (2) Count Five, which characterizes CCC as a "mere alter ego of Aguado" and seeks to pierce CCC's corporate veil; and (3) Count Six, which alleges that CCC and Aguado engaged in a civil conspiracy to appropriate rights and profits belonging to USTAAD. The court will first address ...