Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. (D.C. Civil Action No. 06-cv-03003) District Judge: Honorable Juan R. Sanchez.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Ambro, Circuit Judge
Before: SCIRICA, Chief Judge, AMBRO, and SMITH, Circuit Judges.
This is our first opportunity to confront the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act ("EMTALA" or the "Act"). 42 U.S.C. § 1395dd, et seq. Among other things, the Act forbids hospitals from refusing to treat individuals with emergency conditions, a practice often referred to as "patient dumping."
Appellants Christopher and Honey Torretti's son, Christopher, was born with severe brain damage after Mrs. Torretti's high-risk pregnancy went awry. On the morning of the birth, Mrs. Torretti went to her routine outpatient fetal monitoring appointment at a perinatal facility. The attending medical personnel at the facility directed her to her primary hospital for extended perinatal monitoring. She gave birth to Christopher shortly after arriving at the hospital. The Torrettis sued the hospitals and doctors involved under EMTALA, as well as state statutory and common-law claims. This appeal tests the boundaries of EMTALA, which is not a federal malpractice statute. Given these circumstances, relief for Christopher Torretti's traumatic brain injuries may be available in other forms, but is not provided under EMTALA. Thus, we affirm the District Court's grant of summary judgment.*fn1
This case, like most cases brought under EMTALA, is tragic. This was Mrs. Torretti's second pregnancy. Her first child was born healthy. Both pregnancies were high-risk because she is an insulin-dependent diabetic. Her primary obstetrician was Dr. Patricia McConnell, a member of the Peden Group, an obstetrics practice group based out of Lankenau Hospital ("Lankenau"). Lankenau is part of the Main Line Health system and located in Wynnewood, Pennsylvania.
Because of Mrs. Torretti's diabetic condition (which can present complications during a pregnancy), Dr. McConnell referred her to the Paoli Hospital Perinatal Testing Center ("Paoli"), located in Paoli, Pennsylvania, for monitoring throughout both pregnancies. Paoli is a center for fetal monitoring and consultation only, and is located in a medical building adjacent to Paoli Hospital. It is also owned by Main Line Health. The two hospitals are approximately twenty miles apart.
In Mrs. Torretti's third trimester, she began to have complications, primarily involving premature contractions. During this period, the Peden Group increased Mrs. Torretti's monitoring appointments at Paoli to twice per week from once per month. The Peden Group also monitored her as an outpatient at Lankenau on one occasion in mid-April 2005. Two weeks later, when she went to Paoli for routine monitoring on April 30, the Paoli medical staff detected that she was experiencing pre-term labor and directed her to Lankenau where she was hospitalized for three days. On that occasion, she drove herself from Paoli to Lankenau.
Near the end of Mrs. Torretti's pregnancy, in her 34th week, she had a routine monitoring appointment scheduled at Paoli on Monday, May 23. Two days before the appointment, she called Dr. McConnell twice. First, she complained of contractions. Dr. McConnell told her to put her feet up and relax. The second time Mrs. Torretti called, the contractions had lessened, but she explained that she was very uncomfortable because of her large size and had noticed a decrease in fetal movement. She asked about the possibility of receiving a therapeutic amniocentesis, a treatment to reduce her discomfort by removing some of the excess amniotic fluid. Dr. McConnell advised her to drink a glass of ice water to try and stir the baby; thereafter, for whatever reason, Mrs. Torretti detected increased movement. The doctor also told her that she could come to Lankenau if she preferred, but that nothing could be done until Monday. Mrs. Torretti chose not to go the hospital that weekend and did not believe that her condition was emergent.*fn2
On May 23, the Torrettis drove to Paoli for the appointment, which included a routine ultrasound and a fetal non-stress test.*fn3 When Mrs. Torretti arrived at Paoli, she was feeling general discomfort, primarily because of the strain on her back from the large size of her abdomen. She was not alarmed about her condition and did not feel that she was in an emergent state.*fn4 She told Dr. Andrew Gerson, a perinatologist on Paoli's staff, about her conversation with Dr. McConnell over the weekend-that she was having a great deal of discomfort mainly due to her large size and had noticed a decrease in fetal movement, but that there was still some movement.
Dr. Gerson sat Mrs. Torretti in a chair and began the non-stress test. Over a 28-minute period, the test did not show expected fetal heart rate variability-normal accelerations and decelerations. Lack of variability in a non-stress test could be explained by a normal variant, such as a prolonged sleep cycle, or could be the sign of a problem. About the same time Mrs. Torretti began the non-stress test, her contractions returned. She indicated the "pain was so bad" that she was "grasping either the arm of the chair or both arms of the chair at once, and either almost grunting or to a degree yelling." The non-stress test ...