The opinion of the court was delivered by: Christopher C. Conner United States District Judge
THIS DOCUMENT APPLIES TO: ALL CASES
This multidistrict matter arises from defendants' alleged attempts to fix prices for chocolate confectionary products in violation of Section 1 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1. Plaintiffs contend that defendants, who control approximately 75% of the U.S. chocolate candy market, conspired to inflate prices artificially and reaped windfall profits as a result of several coordinated price increases implemented between 2002 and 2007.
All defendants filed motions to dismiss (Docs. 464, 469, 476) pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544 (2007). A subset of defendants comprised of Cadbury plc, Cadbury Holdings Ltd. ("Cadbury Holdings"), Mars Canada, Inc. ("Mars Canada"), Nestlé S.A., and Nestlé Canada, Inc. ("Nestlé Canada") also challenged the court's personal jurisdiction under Rule 12(b)(2). (See Docs. 466, 471, 473, 474.) These defendants (hereinafter collectively "the Rule 12(b)(2) defendants") allege that they do not engage in business in the United States, maintain no presence here, and are therefore beyond the court's jurisdictional ken. On March 3, 2009, the court deferred ruling on these issues and granted plaintiffs a period of limited discovery to develop a factual basis for jurisdiction over the Rule 12(b)(2) defendants.
See In re Chocolate Confectionary Antitrust Litig. (Chocolate I), 602 F. Supp. 2d 538, 573-74, 577 (M.D. Pa. 2009). Discovery closed on April 24, 2009, and all parties to the Rule 12(b)(2) motions submitted supplemental briefs and accompanying exhibits. For the reasons that follow, the jurisdictional motions of Mars Canada, Nestlé S.A., and Nestlé Canada will be granted; the motions filed by Cadbury plc and Cadbury Holdings will be denied.
I. Factual Background*fn1
The Rule 12(b)(2) defendants share many characteristics pertinent to the jurisdictional analysis. None of the Rule 12(b)(2) defendants own real property in the United States, none of them have bank accounts here, and none of them maintain a stateside workforce. They do not sell chocolate or other products directly to American consumers, and they do not have manufacturing facilities within U.S. borders. Nevertheless, plaintiffs contend that their ties to the United States place them within the court's jurisdictional reach. It is to these contacts that the court now turns.
Mars Canada is an indirectly owned operating subsidiary of defendant Mars, Inc. ("Mars Global") that manufactures and distributes Mars-branded products in Canada. (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 68-69, 83; Doc. 622, Ex. 33.) It employs more than 460 individuals, all of whom work in Canada. (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 93-94; Doc. 622, Ex. 11.) Mars Canada is required to obtain the approval of Mars Global for its annual budget, for capital expenditures in excess of $500,000, and for executive appointments and compensation packages. (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 153-55, 159; see also Doc. 622, Ex. 17 §§ 2.9.1, .4; Doc. 622, Exs. 27-31, 34-35.)
Mars Canada periodically transfers its profits to Mars Global or to other Mars entities in the U.S. through dividend payments or through an asset-transfer process known as "capital repatriation."*fn2 (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 82, 86.) Either Mars Global or Mars Canada may initiate dividend payouts, but Mars Global originates capital repatriation without input from Mars Canada. (Id. at 84, 96.) In either form of transfer, the entities' officers negotiate the precise amount of the transaction based upon the corporations' respective financial positions. (Id. at 82-84.) These discussions allow Mars Canada to influence the amount and timing of transfers, and the two entities typically confer until officers of both organizations "feel comfortable" with terms of the dividend or repatriation. (Id. at 83.) Mars Global also collects periodic financial data from operating subsidiaries pertaining to sales, revenue, finance, and business planning. The Mars Recurring Reports Manual, which governs submission of forty-four different reports, standardizes the format in which subsidiaries must submit this information. (Doc. 622, Ex. 24.)
Mars Canada extends credit to other Mars entities and assumes debt without approval from its parent. (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 31, 100-01, 104.) While it may not distribute products outside of Canada, it develops marketing campaigns, sets the price for chocolate candy sold to Canadian buyers, and contracts with third-party distributors independent of its remote corporate parent. (Id. at 118-19, 129-30, 161-62, 206; see also Doc. 622, Exs. 11-13; Doc. 628, Ex. 2 ¶ 14.)
Mars Canada owns all of the trademarks that it utilizes in the Canadian market, and it has entered trademark licensing agreements with Wendy's International, DreamWorks LLC, and Unilever Ice Cream. (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 125; Doc. 622, Exs. 11-13.) The Wendy's and Unilever agreements allow these entities to incorporate Mars-branded confections into the food products they market, (Doc. 622, Ex. 11 ¶¶ 3-4; Doc. 622, Ex. 13 ¶¶ 2.1, 3.1, 3.5, at 1607-09),*fn3 while the contract with DreamWorks authorizes Mars Canada to use Shrek(r) trademarks on its product packaging. (Doc. 622, Ex. 12 at scheds. II & III, at 1545-49, 1554-55.)
Approximately 15% of the chocolate candy Mars Canada produces is consumed by Canadian households, generating annual revenue of approximately C$200 million.*fn4 (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 35, 60.) Mars Canada sells the remaining 85% of its chocolate products to Mars entities in foreign nations at rates below the prices paid by Canadian distributors. (Id. at 35, 61.) These transactions generated an average of C$77.7 million annually between 2002 and 2007. (Doc. 622, Ex. 1.) Most of these exports enter the U.S. market through an inter-company sale to defendant Mars Snackfood U.S. LLC ("Mars Snackfood"),*fn5 which distributes Mars-branded products to American consumers. (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 36.) Mars Snackfood takes possession of these products F.O.B. Canada, and both corporations log the transfer as a purchase transaction in their accounting journals. (Id. at 41-42, 56.) Pricing for this transfer is guided by the Mars Finance Manual, a 500-page document issued by Mars Global that establishes uniform accounting, finance, purchasing, and litigation practices throughout the Mars group.*fn6 (Id. at 47-48; Doc. 622, Ex. 17 § 1.3.1.) The Manual articulates broad pricing principles, but the parties to an inter-company transfer must determine how to apply them to a particular transaction. (Doc. 622, Ex. 17 § 2.21.2 (instructing parties to "jointly seek to resolve any queries related to the application of [pricing] guidelines")).
Mars Snackfood and other Mars entities*fn7 within the United States supply Mars Canada with certain proprietary raw materials. These materials consist primarily of liquid chocolate and chocolate crumb-a base ingredient for all Mars-branded chocolate products. (Doc. 622, Ex. 2 at 113-15.) Mars Canada and Mars Snackfood also consolidate their purchases of supplies such as packaging and packing materials. (Id. at 116-17.)
B. Nestlé S.A. and Nestlé Canada
Nestlé S.A. is the ultimate parent of all entities within the Nestlé group, which includes fifty-two operating companies that bear primary responsibility for product sales and distribution. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 11, 71, 75.) The Nestlé group loosely coordinates operating activities through two immediate subsidiaries of Nestlé S.A. known as Nestec, S.A. ("Nestec") and Société des Produits Nestlé S.A. ("Société"). (Id. at 13, 62; Doc. 627, Ex. A ¶ 6.) Like Nestlé S.A., both Société and Nestec are formed under Swiss law and have their corporate headquarters in Vevey, Switzerland. (Doc. 618, Ex. 37 at 183.) They employ no personnel, hold no real property, and maintain no bank accounts in the United States. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 287-88; Doc. 642, Ex. 2 at 4.)
Société holds legal title to many Nestlé trademarks while Nestec owns the patents and technical know-how used to produce Nestlé-branded products.*fn8 (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 13, 62; Doc. 618, Ex. 15 at 31; Doc. 618, Ex. 23 at 37.) Nestec provides product design and manufacturing support to Nestlé operating entities, and it serves as the primary research and development arm of the Nestlé group. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 62, 65; Doc. 618, Ex. 15 at 87-88; Doc. 619, Ex. 37 at 182-83.) Nestlé S.A. is the beneficial owner of all intellectual property ("IP") held by Société and Nestec, which license it to Nestlé operating entities. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 13, 22.) In return, Nestlé operating entities remit royalty payments to Nestlé S.A. (Id.; Doc. 618, Ex. 23 at 37-38.)
Regional intellectual property advisors ("RIPAs") act as liaisons between Nestec and Société and local operating entities. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 46-48.) Each RIPA is employed by a Nestlé operating entity but simultaneously reports to the entity's executives and to Nestec or Société. (Id.) The RIPAs provide advice to operating companies about trademark issues and apprise Nestec or Société of current developments in local trademark strategy. (Id.) This arrangement allows the Nestlé group to maintain centralized trademark oversight while granting operating companies control over the marks they use on a day-to-day basis. (Id.) The Nestlé group collectively employs approximately twenty RIPAs, who are based around the globe. (Id. at 48-49; Doc. 627, Ex. A ¶ 15.)
Although Nestlé S.A., Société, and Nestec operate in Switzerland, they are not strangers to the American confectionary and investment markets. Société has licensed its Kit-Kat(r) and Rolo(r) trademarks to defendant The Hershey Company ("Hershey Global"), which produces candy under these brand names in the United States. (Doc. 618, Ex. 8.) The agreement requires Hershey Global to remit periodic royalty payments to Société, (id. ¶ 4(f)), to provide Société with product samples on a monthly basis, (id. ¶ 4(e)(iii)), and to allow Société to inspect its facilities annually, (id.).
Senior executives from Nestlé S.A. frequently travel to the United States to conduct investment road shows*fn9 and cultivate investor relations. (Doc. 618, Exs. 11, 12; Doc. 619, Exs. 35, 40.) They attended at least fifty-four events and made hundreds of trips to the U.S. between 2005 and March 2009. (Doc. 619, Exs. 21, 35.) Nestlé S.A. also participates in acquisition activity and joint ventures in the United States, though it frequently implements such actions through subsidiary corporations. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 93-94, 121-22, 223-31.) During the past two decades, the Nestlé group has acquired controlling interests in many American companies, such as Dreyer's(r), Gerber(r), Purina(r), and Jenny Craig(r). (Id. at 215, 218, 231; Doc. 619, Ex. 40 at 22.)
The Nestlé group manages products, brand images, and operations through structures known as strategic business units ("SBUs") and the strategic generating demand unit ("SGDU"). (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 75.) SBUs are constructed around product lines rather than along geographic or corporate boundaries, and separate SBUs exist for each group of closely related products, such as confectionary, frozen foods, and pet care products. (Id. at 65; Doc. 618, Ex. 15 at 90.) Each SBU engages in transnational product development and facilitates the sharing of expertise among Nestlé entities that produce similar goods. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 65.) The SBUs also bear primary responsibility for maintaining the integrity of a portfolio of trademarks known as strategic marks.*fn10 Supervisory authority for all but one of the SBUs rests with Nestec,*fn11 (Doc. 627, Ex. A ¶ 13), though Nestec's SBU personnel ultimately report to a Nestlé S.A. employee, (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 223).
Whereas SBUs focus on product development and trademark fidelity, the SGDU devotes itself primarily to marketing and sales. It designs promotional campaigns, conducts market research, and develops strategies for product placement. (Doc. 627, Ex. A ¶ 14.) SGDU staff members collaborate with the SBUs and with the management of Nestlé operating entities to market products in a manner that appeals to consumers within local geographic markets. Operating entities may then either incorporate the strategies developed by the SBUs and SGDU or may reject the marketing proposals if they conclude that the measures are ill-suited to their particular regions. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 233-34.)
Operating companies communicate financial information to Nestlé S.A. via an internet-based system known as GLOBE. (Doc. 618, Ex. 15 at 40.) The system, which Nestlé S.A. launched in 2000, provides a common platform accessible to all members of the Nestlé group. (Doc. 619, Ex. 34 at 20; Doc. 619, Ex. 37 at 83.) It aggregates financial, marketing, sales, and supply data from all quadrants of the group, and group entities use it for a multitude of corporate functions, from cataloguing financial data to analyzing supply chain efficiency. (Doc. 618, Ex. 2 at 196; Doc. 619, Ex. 34 at 20.) Nestlé Globe, Inc., a subsidiary of Nestlé Canada, employs the information technology staff who run GLOBE on a daily basis. (Doc. 619, Ex. 37 at 84.)
Notably, however, Nestec, and Société do not directly supervise the manufacturing, sales, and marketing processes, which are functions that remain the responsibility of operating entities such as defendant Nestlé USA, Inc. ("Nestlé USA"). (Doc. 618, Ex. 15 at 21.) Nestlé USA is the exclusive supplier of Nestlé-branded products in the United States. (Id. at 194-95.) It has promulgated a strategic business plan that identifies products tailored to the American market and focuses upon developing brand identity with American consumers. (Doc. 618, Ex. 19 at 25-32.) Nestlé USA administers this plan sans involvement from Nestlé S.A., Nestec, or Société. It has created SBUs and an SGDU for purposes analogous to, but distinct from, their similarly named Nestec counterparts. (Doc. 618, Ex. 15 at 90, 147-49.) The SBUs and SGDU within Nestlé USA direct their efforts exclusively toward the American market, and Nestlé USA is organized around somewhat different product clusters. (Id. at 147-49.) Nestlé USA formulates a budget independently of Nestlé S.A., though it must submit monthly financial information to Nestlé S.A., (id. at 53, 189, 216-20), including management letters, which delineate product sales and identify immediate challenges to distribution and market growth, (id. at 70-80; Doc. 618, Exs. 16-18.)
Nestlé USA regularly exchanges products with sister corporation Nestlé Canada. It sells Nestlé Canada nearly all of the frozen food and nutritional snack bars that the latter distributes. (Doc. 619, Ex. 37 at 120, 128, 191-92.) Nestlé Canada purchases raw materials from American vendors and "Nestlé Business Services," an entity that supplies raw materials to Nestlé operating companies in the United States and Canada. (Doc. 618, Ex. 15 at 180-81; Doc. 619, Ex. 37 at 63; Doc. 619, Ex. 39). Commerce also flows southward. Between 2004 and 2008 Nestlé Canada sold chocolate turtles to Nestlé USA and Coffee Crisp(r), Aero(r), and other confectionary products to American companies outside the Nestlé group. (Doc. 619, Ex. 37 at 225-34.) Both Nestlé USA and Nestlé Canada are members of the Nestlé group's Zone Americas, an entity within Nestlé USA that sets sales targets and establishes prices for product transfers between Nestlé entities within North and South America. (Doc. 618, Ex. 15 at 51, 100-01, 223-24.) Nestlé Canada also acquires products from third-parties in the U.S. pursuant to co-packing agreements. (Doc. 619, Ex. 37 at 209-10.) These arrangements allow American companies to manufacture Nestlé-branded products, which Nestlé Canada then purchases for Canadian distribution. (Id.)
C. Cadbury plc and Cadbury Holdings
Cadbury plc and Cadbury Holdings are both British corporations with their principal offices in Uxbridge, United Kingdom. Cadbury plc is the ultimate parent of all entities within the Cadbury group, and Cadbury Holdings is its sole immediate subsidiary. (Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 12.) Both corporations are the successors in interest of Cadbury Schweppes plc ("Cadbury Schweppes"), which dissolved in May 2008. (Doc. 521, Ex. F; Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 9.) Cadbury Holdings succeeded to Cadbury Schweppes's corporate governance functions while Cadbury plc assumed responsibility for investment and public reporting obligations. (Doc. 521, Ex. F; Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 9, 12.) Cadbury plc and Cadbury Holdings possessed identical directors following the dissolution of Cadbury Schweppes but have since diversified their board membership, and none of the directors of one entity presently holds a concurrent position with the other. (Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 14, 70.) Cadbury plc shares and American depository receipts ("ADRs") appear on the London and New York Stock Exchanges. (Id. at 9.)
Todd Stitzer ("Stitzer"), the CEO of Cadbury plc, manages the affairs of Cadbury subsidiaries through a panel known as the Chief Executive Officer's Committee (hereinafter "CEC" or "the Committee"). (Doc. 521, Ex. B; Doc. 620, Ex. 5.) Despite his title, Stitzer is actually an employee of a U.S.-based Cadbury entity, as Cadbury plc has no employees. (Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 16-17.) The CEC assumes responsibility "for the day-to-day management of the operations and the implementation of strategy,"*fn12 (Doc. 521, Ex. B), and consists of the heads of the Cadbury group's various business units, which serve purposes similar to the Nestlé group's SBUs. (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 56.) However, Cadbury business units differ significantly from Nestlé SBUs in that their principals concurrently serve as the executives of Cadbury operating entities. (Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 17.) The chief executives of Cadbury operating entities are not only responsible for their own company's manufacturing activities, they are also responsible for management of Cadbury global operations through the CEC. The CEC convenes between six and nine times annually. (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 59-60.) Between 2006 and 2007, at least three of these meetings occurred in the United States. (Doc. 620, Exs. 32, 33, 39.)
Jim Chambers ("Chambers") is a member of the CEC and serves as president and CEO of Cadbury Adams USA LLC ("Cadbury USA"), the Cadbury entity responsible for product manufacturing and distribution in the United States. (Doc. 620, Ex. 5; Doc. 629, Ex. 2 ¶ 1.)*fn13 According to Chambers, employees of the Cadbury group perceive Cadbury plc and Cadbury Holdings as a single, undifferentiated entity.*fn14 (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 26-27.) The two companies share office space, (Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 17-18), and manage the Cadbury group through a matrix organizational structure, (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 54). Dual reporting lines are the primary attribute of a matrix organization. (Id. at 54; Doc. 629, Ex. 1 ¶ 7.) Under this structure, managers of Cadbury operating entities supervise employees within their chain of command and simultaneously share information with their peers from other geographic territories. Global functional heads coordinate this sharing of information. (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 56-57; Doc. 629, Ex. 1 ¶ 7.) Thus, the matrix structure promotes global development of group-wide expertise and best practices within each functional area. (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 56-57; Doc. 629, Ex. 1 ¶ 7.)
Part and parcel of the Cadbury group's matrix structure is a process known as "seconding." This process allows the CEC and other group managers to transfer personnel from one Cadbury entity to another. The CEC periodically reviews personnel assignments and recommends intercompany transfers-or "secondments"-based upon operational needs. (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 192.) The transferred individual becomes an employee of the transferee entity but retains benefits and seniority that he or she accrued while working for the transferor company. (Doc. 629, Ex. 1 ¶ 5.) The transferee entity must approve the seconding and may reject the proposed transfer. (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 194.) If the individual is a contract employee, his or her contract remains in effect following the secondment; however, the transferee entity assumes responsibility for the individual's compensation package. (Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 21; Doc. 629, Ex. 1 ¶ 6.) Since 2000, thirty-five employees based in the United Kingdom have been seconded to Cadbury entities in the United States, twenty-two of whom formerly worked for Cadbury Schweppes plc. (Doc. 620, Ex. 2.) Thirty-one individuals have transferred in the opposite direction, with twenty-three destined for the ultimate parent company. (Id.) The remaining secondments occurred among other Cadbury entities. (Id.)
Cadbury plc and Cadbury Holdings are directly involved in their subsidiaries' budgeting procedures. Each fiscal year, local operating companies propose budgets and sales targets, which they forward to Stitzer and the chief financial officer ("CFO") of the Cadbury group. (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 48-49, 132-33.) Stitzer and the CFO review and approve all budgets and establish sales targets for the operating companies. (Id.)
The Cadbury group maintains two licensing agreements with Hershey Global. These agreements*fn15 grant Hershey Global an exclusive license to produce and distribute Cadbury-branded products in the United States. (Doc. 478-7 § 2.1, at 27; Doc. 620, Ex. 22 at § 2.1, at 10.) In return, Hershey Global pays periodic royalties to the Cadbury entities that are signatories to the agreement.*fn16 (Doc. 478-8 § 5.1, at 12-13; Doc. 622, Ex. 22 § 5.1, at 36.) None of those entities are parties to this litigation.
Managers of Hershey Global and these entities meet quarterly to discuss marketing strategy, product development, and quality control. (Doc. 478-8 § 6.1, at 18-19; Doc. 620, Ex. 22 at § 6.2, at 42-43; see also Doc. 620, Exs. 25-26.) Between 2004 and 2008, the parties to the agreement conducted at least ten quality-review inspections at three manufacturing plants that produce Cadbury-branded products.*fn17 (See Doc. 620, Exs. 25-26.)*fn18 The inspections addressed issues such as packaging, production improvements, quality assurance, and marketing of Cadbury-branded products. (Id.) Cadbury plc and Cadbury Holdings (and Cadbury Schweppes) have never participated in these conferences, though as corporate parents of the Cadbury group they obviously benefit from royalties generated by the licensing agreements. (Doc. 620, Ex. 3 at 73.)
Plaintiffs have also submitted minutes from two additional conferences convened for purposes beyond those specified in the trademark licensing agreements. The first, held on January 28, 2005 and styled "Hershey/Cadbury Joint Review Session," was attended only by employees of U.S. and Canadian Cadbury entities.*fn19 The conference explored opportunities for joint procurement of raw materials and supplies, the possibility of sharing cocoa futures pricing data, and cooperative production between Hershey Global and Canadian Cadbury entities. (Doc. 620, Ex. 23.) The minutes contain the following notation regarding pricing: "CS to develop pricing for Hershey skus*fn20 sourced from Gladstone," (Id. at 4), which is a manufacturing facility operated by Cadbury Canada. (Doc. 620, Ex. 4 at 165.)
The second conference occurred on December 15, 2005. It focused on opportunities to streamline quality control and auditing procedures under the trademark licensing agreements. (Doc. 620, Ex. 24.) The record again contains no indication of involvement by employees of Cadbury Schweppes. During the meeting, Hershey Global expressed a desire to grow its international market share but stated that it had no intentions of expanding its presence in Europe. (Id. at 1.) Plaintiffs postulate that the minutes of this conference reveal an agreement "that Hershey would stay out of Cadbury's home market [in Europe] in exchange for the continued allocation of Cadbury's share of the U.S. Chocolate Candy market to Hershey via the licensing agreements." (Doc. 620 at 22.)
The court initially deferred ruling on the Rule 12(b)(2) defendants' motions and granted plaintiffs a period of jurisdictional discovery, which closed on April 24, 2009. See Chocolate I, 602 F. Supp. 2d at 572-74. The parties have submitted approximately 4,500 pages of exhibits pertinent to the pending motions, and they have fully briefed the jurisdictional issues, which are now ripe for disposition.
Motions to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(2), like those for failure to state a claim under Rule 12(b)(6), require the court to accept as true the allegations of the pleadings and all reasonable inferences therefrom. Pinker v. Roche Holdings Ltd., 292 F.3d 361, 368 (3d Cir. 2002). Unlike Rule 12(b)(6), Rule 12(b)(2) does not limit the scope of the court's review to the face of the pleadings. See id.; Carteret Sav. Bank, F.A. v. Shushan, 954 F.2d 141, 142 & n.1 (3d Cir. 1992). Consideration of affidavits submitted by the parties is appropriate and, typically, necessary. Patterson by Patterson v. FBI, 893 F.2d 595, 603-04 (3d Cir. 1990).
Although plaintiffs bear the ultimate burden of proving personal jurisdiction by a preponderance of the evidence, such a showing is unnecessary at the preliminary stages of litigation. Mellon Bank (E.) PSFS, Nat'l Ass'n v. Farino, 960 F.2d 1217, 1223 (3d Cir. 1992). Rather, plaintiffs must merely allege sufficient facts to establish a prima facie case of jurisdiction over the person. Id. Once these allegations are contradicted by an opposing affidavit, however, plaintiffs must present similar evidence in support of personal jurisdiction.*fn21 Metcalfe v. Renaissance Marine, Inc., 566 F.3d 324, 330-31 (3d Cir. 2009); Carteret Sav. Bank, 954 F.2d at 142 & n.1, 146; Patterson, 893 F.2d at 603-04. "[A]t no point may a plaintiff rely on the bare pleadings alone in order to withstand a defendant's Rule 12(b)(2) motion to dismiss for lack of in personam jurisdiction. . . . Once the motion is made, plaintiff must respond with actual proofs, not mere allegations." Patterson, 893 F.2d at 604. When the plaintiff responds with affidavits or other evidence in support of its position, the court is bound to accept these representations and defer final determination as to the merits of the allegations until a pretrial hearing or the time of trial. Carteret Sav. Bank, 954 F.2d at 142 n.1 (stating that the "plaintiff need only plead [a] prima facie case to survive the initial [Rule 12(b)(2)] motion, but must eventually establish jurisdiction by a preponderance of the evidence") (citing Behagen v. Amateur Basketball Ass'n, 744 F.2d 731, 733 (10th Cir. 1984)).
A court must possess one of two forms of personal jurisdiction over each defendant brought before it. D'Jamoos ex rel. Estate of Weingeroff v. Pilatus Aircraft Ltd., 566 F.3d 94, 102 (3d Cir. 2009). The first of these forms, known as specific jurisdiction, enables a court to hear claims that arise from a defendant's contacts with the forum where the court sits. Helicopteros Nacionales de Colombia v. Hall, 466 U.S. 408, 414 n.8 (1984). In contrast, a court exercising general jurisdiction may hear any claim against a defendant that possesses systematic and continuous contacts with the forum regardless of whether the claim resulted from the defendant's forum-related activities. Id. at 415 n.9. When a plaintiff invokes a federal statute authorizing nationwide service of process,*fn22 the United States as a whole serves as the relevant forum for purposes of jurisdictional contacts. In re Auto. Refinishing Paint Antitrust Litig., 358 F.3d 288, 298 (3d Cir. 2004).
A. Governing Principles of General Jurisdiction
In the matter sub judice, plaintiffs invoke general jurisdiction against each of the Rule 12(b)(2) defendants.*fn23 A plaintiff may acquire general jurisdiction over a corporate defendant via two alternate avenues. First, the plaintiff may show that the defendant possesses systematic and continuous contacts with the forum where plaintiff brings suit. Second, in cases against foreign corporations, the plaintiff may demonstrate that the out-of-forum corporation either controls or is controlled by an in-forum affiliate to such a degree that the two corporations operate as a single, amalgamated entity. This fusion of corporate identity-often described as an alter ego relationship-allows the court to impute the domestic entity's activities to the foreign organization when ...