On Appeal from the Order of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, (No. 04-cr-00103), District Judge: Honorable John R. Padova. On Appeal from the Judgment of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, (No. 06-cr-00460), District Judge: Honorable Stewart Dalzell. On Petition for Writ of Mandamus (Related to E.D. Pa. No. 04-cr-00103).
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Irenas, Senior United States District Judge.
Before: SLOVITER, GREENBERG, Circuit Judges, and IRENAS,*fn1 Senior District Judge.
This case arises from two consolidated appeals and a Petition for Writ of Mandamus brought by Raymond E. Washington, a/k/a Talib Alim, a/k/a Kennard Gregg. Number 07-1884 is an appeal on Double Jeopardy grounds of the district court's (Padova, J.) order vacating Washington's sentence for dealing counterfeit currency and scheduling a date to resentence him. Number 07-2541 is a Petition for Writ of Mandamus and/or Prohibition to Bar Second Sentencing, seeking to prevent the district court (Padova, J.) from resentencing Washington. Finally, No. 07-1523 is an appeal from Washington's conviction and sentence before a second district court (Dalzell, J.), for making false statements in the course of the earlier counterfeit currency case before Judge Padova. For the reasons set forth below, we issue a writ of mandamus directing the district court (Padova, J.) to vacate his order of March 20, 2007, which vacated the original sentence in the counterfeiting case, and we reverse the district court's (Dalzell, J.) sentence for the false statements conviction and remand for resentencing. We dismiss Washington's Double Jeopardy appeal as moot.
In December 2003, the United States Secret Service learned that an individual known as "Kennard Gregg" was passing counterfeit currency at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Philadelphia. The person in question was in fact Appellant, Raymond E. Washington ("Washington"), who was using Kennard Gregg's Veterans Affairs card to receive methadone treatment from the VA Medical Center. On January 28, 2004, Washington was arrested for knowingly selling counterfeit federal reserve notes in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 473. At the time of his arrest, Washington identified himself to the United States Secret Service as "Kennard Gregg" and provided Kennard Gregg's date of birth and Social Security number. He signed a Miranda waiver, statement, and Waiver of Right to Speedy Trial using the name "Kennard Gregg," or initials "K.G." Washington also told Pretiral Services that he was "Kennard Gregg" following his arrest.*fn2
On March 22, 2004, Washington, still using the name "Kennard Gregg," pled guilty to Information No. 04-103 charging him with violating 18 U.S.C. § 473. During the plea, Washington was sworn in under the name "Kennard Gregg," entered the actual plea in that name, and responded to that name or acknowledged to the court that he was "Kennard Gregg" no fewer than nine times.
On June 23, 2004, Judge Padova sentenced Washington (under the name "Kennard Gregg") to a term of imprisonment of six months, three years of supervised release, restitution of $350, and a special assessment of $200. During the sentencing hearing, Washington was again sworn in under the name "Kennard Gregg," and was warned that his answers "would be subject to the penalties of perjury, or of making a false statement, if [he did] not tell the truth." Judge Padova relied on the presentence investigation report prepared by United States Probation Office. Throughout the presentencing investigation, Washington provided a mix of his own biographical information and what he knew about the real Kennard Gregg. Based on the information obtained, "Gregg's" criminal history category was two and the total offense level was nine, yielding a Sentencing Guidelines range of six to twelve months. Had Washington's criminal history been properly calculated using his true record, his criminal history category would have been four and his offense level nine, yielding a Guidelines range of twelve to eighteen months. Again, during the sentencing hearing Washington responded to the court under the name "Gregg" no fewer than five times.
Washington appealed his sentence, still using the name "Kennard Gregg," arguing that the restitution order violated the holding in United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220, 125 S.Ct. 738, 160 L.Ed. 2d 621 (2005). The appeal was initially argued on June 8, 2005, and then was consolidated with two other cases and reheard en banc on November 1, 2005. We ultimately rejected Washington's argument. See United States v. Leahy, 438 F.3d 328 (3d Cir. 2006) (en banc); United States v. Gregg, 169 Fed. App'x 109 (3d Cir. 2006). Washington then filed a petition for writ of certiorari with the United States Supreme Court which was denied. Gregg v. United States, 127 S.Ct. 660, 166 L.Ed. 2d 547 (2006). Washington used the name "Kennard Gregg" throughout all of these proceedings.
At the time of his arrest on the counterfeiting charge, Washington was the subject of a state parole warrant issued on July 18, 1995, after he had absconded while on parole from a New Jersey conviction. He had remained a fugitive until his federal arrest.
The United States Bureau of Prisons discovered Washington's true identity while he was serving his federal sentence. The State of New Jersey learned that Washington was in federal custody, and on July 26, 2004, issued a fugitive warrant. Upon completing his federal term of incarceration, he was released to New Jersey authorities on January 3, 2005, and remained in custody in New Jersey until his release on December 12, 2005.
Following his release from New Jersey custody, on January 11, 2006, Washington met with probation officer Tomas Adamczyk. It was at this point that Washington disclosed his true identity to Mr. Adamczyk in order to avoid spending 30 days in an in-patient mental health program.*fn3 Washington came clean to Mr. Adamczyk, explaining that Gregg was someone he knew and that he used Gregg's VA card and personal information (with Gregg's permission) to get free methadone treatment because Washington was not a veteran. Washington admitted using the false name to avoid the outstanding warrant stemming from the 1995 New Jersey parole violation. He further admitted that the biographical information he had provided before was a mix of what he knew about Gregg and his own. Finally, Washington admitted to knowing that the criminal history in the presentence report was Gregg's and not his.
On July 17, 2006, after learning this information, the government moved to vacate the original sentence and sought resentencing on the ground that the original sentence was based on false representations to the court. Washington argued that the district court lacked jurisdiction to alter the sentence and that a second sentencing would violate the Double Jeopardy Clause. The court found that it had the "inherent power to vacate judgments procured by fraud," and that Washington's double jeopardy rights would not be violated by resentencing. United States v. Gregg, No. 04-103, 2006 WL 2850564, at *3, *4 (E.D. Pa. Oct. 3, 2006). Therefore, the court ordered an evidentiary hearing to determine if Washington had actually perpetrated fraud on the court. Id. at *5. Following the evidentiary hearing, on March 20, 2007, the court concluded that Washington had perpetrated fraud on the court, vacated Washington's sentence, and scheduled a resentencing (which has been stayed pending this appeal). United States v. Gregg, No. 04-00103, slip op. at 1 (E.D. Pa. Mar. 20, 2007).*fn4
While proceedings were pending before Judge Padova, Washington was indicted on September 5, 2006, on three counts of making false statements in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1001 by knowingly and willfully ma[king] materially false, fictitious, and fraudulent statements and representations in that defendant WASHINGTON represented that his name was "Kennard Gregg," the name of another individual known to defendant WASHINGTON, and provided a sworn statement [and signed documents] using the name "Kennard Gregg," when, as the defendant knew, his name was and is RAYMOND WASHINGTON.
This indictment covered the statements made to the United States Secret Service (Count I), the United States Pretrial Services Office for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (Count II), and the United States Probation Office for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (Count III). On November 16, 2006, Washington pled guilty to all three counts before Judge Dalzell.
The sentencing hearing took place on February 20, 2007. Without objection, the court adopted the presentence investigation report (PSR) as the findings of the court. The PSR found the total offense level to be four and the criminal history category to be five, with a resulting Guidelines range of four to ten months.
The court took judicial notice of all the instances in which Washington had used the name "Kennard Gregg," including a signed bond and affidavit before the magistrate judge, his guilty plea and sentencing before Judge Padova, the affidavit opposing the Motion to Vacate Sentence, and the Motion to Stay Pending Appeal. The court also recounted the number of federal judges to whom Washington lied, naming all the judges of this Court sitting en banc and the Supreme Court Justices who denied the writ of certiorari.*fn5 The court suggested, and later found, that each was an uncharged violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1001. The court stated that, "I'm hard put to think of what could be worse in this kind of violation of this particular statute." In noting the need for deterrence, the court stated:
That's rather important here, isn't it; that people, I mean, if somebody could have the wholesale protracted deception of the entire, literally all four, if you want to consider magistrates judges, a level, all four levels of the federal judicial system, of lying on the most material of fact. If you got four months for that, that would be a joke, in view of that, wouldn't it? . . . It would have virtually no deterrent effect.
The court took a brief recess to print out the docket entries from the appeal in United States v. Kennard Gregg, as well as a Westlaw KeyCite showing the denial of the writ of certiorari. It concluded that Washington, through his deception, had benefitted "to the tune of criminal history two versus criminal history five, to say nothing of the open matter in New Jersey."*fn6 In addition to Washington's prior convictions, the court also took note of his seven probation and parole violations (with another violation pending) suggesting that Washington would not be amenable to supervision.
After hearing from defense counsel and Washington himself, the court considered the Guidelines and the other § 3553(a) factors in deciding on a sentence. It found that "it is undisputed that the advisory guidelines range is four to ten months." The court then reiterated all of the ...