The opinion of the court was delivered by: A. Richard Caputo United States District Judge
Presently before the Court are Defendants Diocese of Scranton (the "Diocese"), Sacred Heart of Jesus Church ("Sacred Heart"), Bishop James C. Timlin ("Bishop Timlin"), Rev. Joseph R. Kopacz ("Father Kopacz") (collectively the "Diocesan Defendants") and Brother Antonio F. Antonucci's ("Brother Antonucci") (collectively "Defendants") motions for summary judgment (Docs. 75-1, 76) as to Counts I, III, IV, V, VI, VII and VIII of Plaintiff John Doe's Complaint (Doc. 1). The Diocesan Defendants also seek summary judgment as to Plaintiff's claim for punitive damages. For the reasons stated below, the Court will grant in part and deny in part Defendants' motions. The Court has jurisdiction over this matter pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 1331 and 1367(a).
A. Defendant Rev. Albert M. Liberatore and Richard Roe
Defendant Rev. Albert M. Liberatore ("Liberatore") was ordained as a priest in the Diocese by Bishop Timlin on August 26, 1989. (Curriculum Vitae of Rev. Albert M. Liberatore, Doc. 88-2 p. 5, "Liberatore CV".) Following several years of study at the Catholic University of Louvain, in Leuven, Belgium, towards obtaining a Ph.D. in Theology, Liberatore returned to Scranton and, in June of 1995, was assigned by Bishop Timlin to serve as Vocations Director of the Diocese. (Bishop James C. Timlin Dep. 168:2-5, Sept. 22, 2006, Docs. 88-5, 88-6; Liberatore CV at 2.) Liberatore took up residence at St. Pius X Seminary (the "Seminary") in Dalton, Pennsylvania. (Liberatore CV at 2.) Liberatore also taught classes at the University of Scranton as a non-resident faculty member. (Liberatore CV at 2; Richard Roe Dep. 11:18-19, Sept. 5, 2006, Doc. 88-4.)
In the fall of 1995, Liberatore befriended Richard Roe ("Roe"), a twenty-one (21) year old male student in the Sacramental Theology class which he taught at the University of Scranton.*fn1
(Roe Dep. 11:17-14:18.) Later that semester, Liberatore wrote Roe a letter inquiring as to whether Roe was interested in discerning whether he had a calling for the priesthood. (Roe Dep. 12:1-22.) Roe, in fact, was interested, and, thereafter, he and Liberatore began spending a great deal of time together. (Roe Dep. 15:2-18:22.) Liberatore took Roe out to dinner, purchased gifts for him, and took him to New York City on multiple occasions. (Id.)
In the spring of 1996, Liberatore encouraged Roe, then a college senior and near graduation, to pursue a full-time position as the Director of Youth and Young Adult Retreats for the Diocese. (Roe Dep. 20:9-11.) This position would require Roe to have an office at the Seminary, where Liberatore resided. (Roe Dep. 21:10-12.) Roe was hired for the position, thanks in part to Liberatore's recommendation. (Roe Dep. 21:14-18.)
After Roe graduated from the University of Scranton, Liberatore took him to Los Angeles, California, as a graduation gift. (Roe Dep. 23:1-15.) The night before Liberatore and Roe were to fly to Los Angeles they went out to several bars to drink. (Roe Dep. 24:1-6.) On the way home, Liberatore and Roe sat in the back seat of a car driven by one of Liberatore's friends. (Roe Dep. 24:8-17.) During the drive, Liberatore "leaned on [Roe] and put his hand on [Roe's] thigh." (Roe Dep. 24:20-22.) Roe construed this as a sexual overture. (Roe Dep. 27:17.)
Despite the sexual overture on the part of Liberatore, for much of the summer of 1996, Roe stayed in Liberatore's bedroom at the Seminary while he looked for an apartment. (Roe Dep. 29:1-6; 33:1.) After Roe had found an apartment, he oftentimes stayed overnight in Liberatore's bedroom at the Seminary. (Roe Dep. 32:16-33:1.) This state of affairs was not kept secret from the other seminarians. (Roe Dep. 33:5-8.) Liberatore would also oftentimes fail to return to the Seminary and instead stay overnight at Roe's apartment. (Roe Dep. 46:1-4.) Near the end of the summer of 1996, Liberatore began having discussions with Roe about sexuality, particularly in regard to what had transpired in the car on the way home from the night of drinking. (Roe Dep. 19:14-22; 27:2-18.)
During the fall of 1996, Liberatore took Roe and another seminarian, Michael Moe ("Moe"), who was then nineteen (19) years of age, to New York City for dinner and drinks. (Roe Dep. 29:19-31:7; Decl. of Michael Moe ¶ 15, Sept. 14, 2006, Doc. 88-8.) The three of them then stayed the night in a hotel suite. (Roe Dep. 30:18-31:1.) While Moe slept on the couch, Liberatore and Roe slept in the lone bed. (Roe Dep. 31:14-16.)
This incident was called to the attention of Bishop Timlin by Father Bambera, who, in November of 1996, wrote a memo to Bishop Timlin expressing "serious concerns . . . regarding questionable behavior of Father Al Liberatore." (Memo from Father Bambera to Bishop Timlin, dated November 27, 1996, Doc. 80-7, "Bambera Memo".) Father Bambera described this incident as one of "grave concern." (Id.) Father Bambera also informed Bishop Timlin of the "evolution of [the] relationship" between Liberatore and Roe, which he stated had "become very obvious to the seminarians as well." (Id.) While Father Bambera opined that he did not feel there was anything improper about the relationship, he related to Bishop Timlin that Liberatore and Roe spent "an inordinate amount of time" together, that Roe was "often in [Liberatore's] rooms until late at night, and that Roe "often becomes the focus of [Liberatore's] attention at seminary gatherings." (Id.) Father Bambera also noted that he had informed others in the Diocese, namely Monsignor David Bohr, Bishop Dougherty, Monsignor John Esseff and Monsignor Dale Rupert, of the relationship between Liberatore and Roe. (Id.)
On an evening in the fall of 1996, Liberatore and Roe were watching a movie in Liberatore's room at the Seminary. (Roe Dep. 39:1-22.) Roe was lying on the couch while Liberatore was lying on the floor near the couch. (Id.) After the movie, Liberatore tried to touch Roe in a sexually explicit manner. (Roe Dep. 46:12-18.) Liberatore then began to discuss sexuality -- homosexuality in particular -- with Roe. (Roe Dep. 43:8-12.) During this conversation, Liberatore encouraged Roe to engage in homosexual relations with him. (Roe Dep. 43:11-44:10.) Liberatore also discussed with Roe the homosexual activity that Liberatore had engaged in with others, including describing in detail what homosexual acts he had performed. (Roe Dep. 44:17-22.) In fact, Liberatore described homosexual acts in which he had engaged while living in the Seminary. (Roe Dep. 44:20-22.)
In the early part of 1997, Liberatore and Roe took a trip to Philadelphia. (Roe Dep. 50:10-13.) After spending the evening at Dave & Buster's, a bar and arcade, Liberatore and Roe stayed the night in a hotel room. (Roe Dep. 53:16-22.) During the night, Liberatore "got out of his bed and got into [Roe's] bed and laid down next to [Roe] and put his arm around [Roe], and at some point during the night [Liberatore] put his hand down [Roe's] pants." (Id.)
Roe related other incidents in which Liberatore made unwanted sexual contact with him, including one instance when Roe awakened to find Liberatore's penis in his hand. (Roe Dep. 69:6-7.)
Another incident, occurring during the spring of 1997, began at dinner when Liberatore maneuvered his foot into Roe's crotch while they were at a restaurant. (Roe Dep. 56:20-57:2.) After dinner, Liberatore invited Roe back to spend the night in his bedroom at the Seminary. (Roe Dep. 57:16-18.) While speaking in the sitting room before heading to bed, Liberatore expressed his displeasure in Roe's attraction to a young woman whom he knew. (Roe Dep 47:14-48:15; 58:2-7.) Roe then "got pretty emotional" and started to cry. (Roe Dep. 58:7-9.) Roe then tried to leave Liberatore's room, but Liberatore physically blocked his attempt. (Roe Dep. 59:2-4.) Roe then tried to throw Liberatore out of the way. (Roe Dep. 59:9.) Pushing and shoving ensued, and Liberatore ended up falling on the ground. (Roe Dep. 59:10-11.) This altercation awakened many, if not all, of the seminarians and faculty. (Letter from Roe to The Seminarians of St. Pius X Seminary, dated April 5, 1997, Doc. 80-8, "Roe Letter".) One seminarian, Reverend Thomas Muldowney ("Father Muldowney"), even came to Liberatore's room to help calm Roe down. (Roe Dep. 59:12-13.) Father Muldowney stated in his deposition that Roe, appearing very upset, yelled, "I'm a twenty-two (22) year old fucking homosexual." (Reverend Thomas Muldowney Dep. 46:1-4, Dec. 8, 2005, Doc. 88-8 p.16 of 26.) Father Muldowney stated that several other seminarians heard the commotion and came to the room. (Muldowney Dep. 46:5-11.) Father Muldowney reported the incident to Monsignor Bohr, the Rector at the Seminary, who, in turn, contacted Bishop Timlin to inform him of it. (Monsignor David Bohr Dep. 42:8-43:11, Jan. 3, 2006, Doc. 82-2.) Eventually, Roe was calmed down and then fell asleep in Liberatore's room. (Roe Dep. 60:1-3.) When Roe woke up the next morning, he found that he was in Liberatore's bed with Liberatore in bed next to him. (Roe Dep. 60:4-6.) Liberatore's hand was down Roe's pants and was touching Roe's penis. (Roe Dep. 60:7.) Liberatore then attempted to perform oral sex on Roe. (Roe Dep. 61:2-3.) At that point, the bell for morning prayer rang, and Roe was able to extricate himself from the situation. (Roe Dep. 60:12-18.)
A few days later, Roe told Monsignor Rupert that he had been sleeping in Liberatore's bedroom, in Liberatore's bed. (Roe Dep. 62:20-63:3.) Roe also informed Monsignor Rupert that Liberatore had made several attempts to have homosexual contact with Roe. (Roe Dep. 63:12-15.) Roe had many conversations with Monsignor Rupert regarding his relationship with Liberatore. (Roe Dep. 63:9-10.)
In March of 1997, Bishop Timlin was informed of an incident involving Liberatore and one of the male seminarians. (Summary of Concerns Regarding Fr. Liberatore, dated March 1997, Doc. 88-8, "Summary".) During a tour of the Seminary, on February 24, 1997, twenty (20) boys from Bishop Hoban High School "passed by the open door to Peter Poe's room in which Fr. Al [Liberatore] was seen lying on Peter's bed and being given a back massage by Peter." (Summary at 2.) Bishop Timlin was also informed of Liberatore's "close relationships" with several of the seminarians, including Michael Moe. (Summary at 1.)
After the altercation between Liberatore and Roe and the back massage with Poe, Bishop Timlin removed Liberatore from the Seminary and reassigned him to St. Clare's Parish in Dunmore, Pennsylvania. (Bohr Dep. 44:8-9; 68:21-69:4; See Roe Letter at 3.) In July of 1997, Liberatore was reassigned again, this time to Sacred Heart, located in Duryea, Pennsylvania. (See Doc. 1-1 ¶ 11.) Shortly thereafter, Liberatore was named the Pastor of Sacred Heart. (See id.)
B. Liberatore and Plaintiff
Plaintiff was a parishioner and alter server of Sacred Heart. (Moe Decl. ¶ 20.) In 1999, Liberatore, as Pastor of Sacred Heart, hired Plaintiff, who was then fourteen (14) years of age, to work at Sacred Heart as a sacristan. (See Doc. 1-1 ¶ 14; Patricia Minora Dep. 13:1-6, Jan. 26, 2006, Doc. 89-2.) Over the course of the next year, Liberatore "groomed" Plaintiff (Pl.'s Dep. 166:4-7, Oct. 17, 2006, Doc. 89-3 p.13) -- that is, Liberatore undertook to establish an intimate friendship with Plaintiff in preparation to the eventual introduction of sexual activity. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, "Child Grooming", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_grooming (last visited March 15, 2007).
During this time, Liberatore took Plaintiff to movies and restaurants (Pl.'s Dep. 153:3-5), and gave him expensive gifts, such as a Movado watch, a cellular phone and fencing equipment. (Minora Dep. 15:4-10; 17:14-16.) The Diocesan Defendants agree that Liberatore's actions with regard to Plaintiff would be characterized as grooming behavior. (Timlin Dep. 36:8-37:9.) Liberatore also provided counseling to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's mother after Plaintiff's father had taken ill and, then, passed away. (Moe Decl. ¶¶ 22-25.) Liberatore became a father figure to Plaintiff. (Id.; Pl.'s Dep. 189:20-190:1.)
Eventually, Liberatore began to make sexual overtures toward Plaintiff. (Pl.'s Dep. 166:7-10.) More than two years of sexual abuse ensued, ultimately ending in May of 2002. (See Doc. 1-1 ¶ 37.) During this period of time, Plaintiff would routinely sleep in Liberatore's bed in the Rectory at Sacred Heart. (Pl.'s Dep. 169:24-25.) On nights Plaintiff would sleep over, Liberatore would oftentimes "spoon" Plaintiff (Pl.'s Dep. 173:5-10) -- that is, Liberatore and Plaintiff would lie in bed on their sides with Liberatore's front to Plaintiff's back, such that they fit together in a manner similar to spoons. Wikipedia, supra, "Spooning", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spooning. On many nights, Liberatore would masturbate while Plaintiff was lying with him in bed. (Pl.'s Dep. 173:10-14.)
Plaintiff also related incidents in which Liberatore would grope Plaintiff's genitals (Pl.'s Dep. 173:21-25), wear Plaintiff's clothes (Pl.'s Dep. 173:21-22), and describe sexual techniques and other graphic sexual behavior (Pl.'s Dep. 179:1-5). Liberatore would also wrestle with Plaintiff, oftentimes groping him in a sexual manner rather than attempt a wrestling maneuver. (Pl.'s Dep. 65:18-66:2.) Liberatore also admitted to Plaintiff that he was a homosexual, and described to Plaintiff sexually explicit acts which he and his homosexual friends would perform. (Pl.'s Dep.179:12-16.) Liberatore also took Plaintiff on trips to New York, staying overnight in a single hotel room with only one bed. (Pl.'s Dep. 189:5-14.) In addition, Liberatore took Plaintiff to Belgium while he was completing his dissertation. (Pl.'s Dep. 152:12; Minora Dep. 15:6.) While in Belgium, Plaintiff slept in the same bed with Liberatore, who would masturbate in the bed and grope Plaintiff while he tried to sleep. (Pl.'s Dep. 245:7-13.)
C. The Diocesan Defendants
On several occasions the Diocesan Defendants were informed of some of the behavior involving Liberatore and Plaintiff. In January of 2001, Patricia Minora ("Minora"), a friend of Plaintiff's mother, spoke to two priests with whom she had been long-time friends, Monsignors Kevin O'Neill and Joseph Kelly, about her suspicions concerning the relationship between Liberatore and Plaintiff. (Minora Dep. 21:14-31:8.) Minora told them that Plaintiff slept overnight in the Rectory with Liberatore, and that Liberatore had given Plaintiff extravagant gifts and even taken Plaintiff on overnight trips. (Id.) These priests advised Minora to contact Father Kopacz and inform him of her suspicions. (Id.) Minora then called Father Kopacz and told him of the relationship between Liberatore and Plaintiff. (Id.)
After receiving a phone call from Minora concerning the relationship between Liberatore and Plaintiff, Monsignor Kevin O'Neill wrote a letter to Bishop Timlin informing him as to what Minora had told him -- i.e., that Plaintiff had been sleeping overnight in Liberatore's bedroom at the Rectory and that Liberatore had taken Plaintiff on several overnight trips. (Letter from Monsignor Kevin O'Neill to Bishop Timlin, dated January 29, 2001, Doc. 89-4 p. 34 of 42, "O'Neill Letter".)
Additionally, in late 2000 and early 2001, Ann Marie Zongilla ("Zongilla"), a cook and housekeeper at Sacred Heart (Ann Marie Zongilla Dep. 6:24-25, Jan. 30, 2006, Doc. 89-4), voiced her suspicion that Liberatore was sexually abusing Plaintiff to Susan Doxbeck, the Pastoral Assistant at Sacred Heart, Father Emmanuel, a priest at Sacred Heart, Reverend Edward Williams ("Father Williams"), also a priest at Sacred Heart, and Monsignor John Bendik. (Zongilla Dep. 28:18-21; 36:21-24; 37:6-8; 44:2-9; 60:13-15; Reverend Edward Williams Dep. 35:19-23, Jan. 26, 2006, Doc. 80-2.)
In the fall of 2001 (see Williams Dep. 35:19-23), Helen Negvesky ("Negvesky"), an employee for the Diocese, informed Monsignor Bendik of her concerns about the relationship between Liberatore and Plaintiff. (Helen Negvesky Dep. 40:5-21, Nov. 17, 2005, Doc. 80-4.) Negvesky testified that she told Monsignor Bendik that Plaintiff was "around the Rectory more than [she] thought he should be, and the way Father [Liberatore] looked at him, that they went places together, and just that it didn't seem right, . . . [and] it didn't look good." (Negvesky Dep. 41:22-42:3.) Negvesky also told Monsignor Bendik of an incident in which Plaintiff "put his hand down Liberatore's pants." (Negvesky Dep. 42:14-17.) Negvesky also stated that there were empty bottles of alcohol littered around Liberatore's room in the Rectory, and, consequently, she suspected that Liberatore was plying Plaintiff with alcohol. (Negvesky Dep. 43:14-22.)
Also in the fall of 2001, after receiving reports from Negvesky and Zongilla concerning suspicious behavior engaged in by Liberatore and Plaintiff, Father Williams spoke with Monsignor Bendik about the relationship between Liberatore and Plaintiff. (Williams Dep. 35:19-36:25.) Father Williams informed Monsignor Bendik that he thought Liberatore was obsessed with Plaintiff and that Liberatore spent an inordinate amount of time with Plaintiff, including wrestling with Plaintiff and taking Plaintiff on overnight trips. (Williams Dep. 35:19-36:25.) Father Williams also told Monsignor Bendik that the Sacred Heart staff suspected that Liberatore was sexually abusing Plaintiff.
Monsignor John Bendik acknowledged that he had received calls from Negvesky and Zongilla, each of whom voiced a suspicion that Liberatore was sexually abusing Plaintiff. (Monsignor John Bendik Dep. 38:18-19; 41:1; 41:20; 47:1-2, Doc. 89-1.) Monsignor Bendik also stated that he had spoken with Father Williams, who expressed his own concerns regarding the impropriety of the relationship between Liberatore and Plaintiff. (Bendik Dep. 52:15-17.) After his conversation with Father Williams, Monsignor Bendik contacted Father Kopacz and "told him there was a concern expressed to me from the Parish of Sacred Heart about [the] relationship [between Liberatore and Plaintiff]." (Bendik Dep. 38:18-22.) Specifically, Monsignor Bendik told Father Kopacz that Liberatore had "a relationship with a young man [at Sacred Heart] parish that could be going beyond the barriers, beyond the parameters, and he better check it out." (Bendik Dep. 65:18-20.) Monsignor Bendik also told Father Kopacz that "something had better be done for the sake of [Plaintiff]." (Bendik Dep. 61:11-12.)
As noted above, Bishop Timlin was informed of Liberatore's behavior, with regard to both Roe and Plaintiff, and the suspicions raised by it. With regard to Roe, Bishop Timlin received the Bambera Memo informing him of Father Bambera's "grave concern[s]" regarding the relationship between Liberatore and Roe, including the fact that Roe was often in Liberatore's room until late at night. (Bambera Memo.) Bishop Timlin was also notified of the incident that occurred late at night at the Seminary involving Liberatore and Roe. (Bohr Dep. 42:8-43:11.) In addition, Bishop Timlin was informed of Poe giving Liberatore a back massage while Liberatore lay on Poe's bed. (Summary at 2.)
With regard to Plaintiff, in January of 2001, Bishop Timlin received the O'Neill Letter informing him that Plaintiff oftentimes slept overnight in Liberatore's bedroom at the Rectory and that Liberatore had taken Plaintiff on several overnight trips. (O'Neill Letter.)
D. Brother Antonio F. Antonucci
Brother Antonio Antonucci, a Benedictine monk who moved to Scranton in the Fall of 2000 to attend the University of Scranton (Brother Antonio Antonucci Dep. 12:7-13:14-15; 14:12-13, Sept. 18, 2006, Doc. 90-2), was also informed of Liberatore's sexual abuse of Plaintiff. (Pl.'s Dep. 65:1-66:19). Specifically, Plaintiff told Brother Antonucci, who worked as a cantor, custodian and cook at Sacred Heart (Doc. 76 ¶ 5), that he slept in Liberatore's bed in the Rectory (Pl.'s Dep. 64:8-11), and that Liberatore would grope Plaintiff in a sexual manner while they wrestled. (Pl.'s Dep. 65:14-66:5.) Rather than encourage Plaintiff to contact the police, or, at the least, tell his mother, Brother Antonucci instructed Plaintiff "to forgive [Liberatore], to keep the issue private, and to not let other people know because it would ruin [Plaintiff's] life and [the lives of] others." (Pl.'s Dep. 66:12-15.)
E. Plaintiff's Relationship with Liberatore Ends
In May of 2002, when Plaintiff was seventeen (17) years old, Liberatore touched Plaintiff's genitals while they were in Liberatore's office at the University of Scranton. (Votum of Bishop Joseph Martino, dated July 23, 2004, Doc. 88-2 pp. 2-3, "Votum".) Later that month, Liberatore took Plaintiff on a trip to New York, staying overnight in the same bed at a hotel. (See Pl.'s Dep. 197:23-25; 199:19-23; Doc. 1-1 ¶ 37.) During the night, Liberatore tried to give Plaintiff oral sex, placing his mouth around Plaintiff's penis. (Pl.'s Dep. 199:19-23.) At this point, it became obvious to Plaintiff that Liberatore had homosexual intentions regarding him. (Id.) These were the last incidents of sexual abuse perpetrated by Liberatore upon Plaintiff.
F. Liberatore's Dismissal from the Clergy and his Criminal Convictions
In July of 2003, Joseph Martino was named Bishop of Scranton, replacing Bishop Timlin. (Bishop Joseph Martino Dep. 10:5, July 13, 2006, Doc. 88-3.) Martino officially became Bishop on October 1, 2003. (Bishop Martino Dep. 11:9.) At some point early in his tenure, Bishop Martino became aware of the rumors and incidents involving Liberatore. (Bishop Martino Dep. 14:5-8.) Upon review of Liberatore's personnel file, Bishop Martino became "alarmed" at the history of inappropriate behavior. (Bishop Martino Dep. 21:12-25.) Bishop Martino was troubled by the incident at the Seminary involving Roe, the back massage involving Peter Poe, and another incident which occurred in December of 2002 while Liberatore was visiting the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. (See Bishop Martino Dep. 32:12-33:25.) Bishop Martino discovered that, sometime during Liberatore's tenure as a priest in the Diocese, he had been sent to Southdown Institute, a non-profit clinic and psychological treatment facility for clergy located in Ontario, Canada, http://www.southdown.on.ca/#. (See Bishop Martino Dep. 39:23-40:2.) Bishop Martino spoke with Liberatore in late November of 2003 about the concerns raised by Liberatore's file. (Bishop Martino Dep. 41:5-20.)
In January of 2004, Plaintiff and another young man came forward and alleged that Liberatore had sexually abused them. (See Bishop Martino Dep. 108:16-18.) Later that month, Bishop Martino hired an investigator, James Seidel ("Seidel"), to investigate these allegations. (Bishop Martino Dep. 108:8-11; see James Seidel Investigative Insert, Doc. 89-5 pp.16-17.)
In May of 2004, Liberatore was arrested and charged with sexual abuse in the State of New York, as well as multiple counts of indecent assault and corruption of minors in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. (Doc. 89-3 pp. 34-44; Doc. 41-2 p. 24.) Liberatore pleaded guilty to those offenses. (Id.) On July 23, 2004, Bishop Martino dismissed Liberatore from the clerical state, having concluded that "the delict of sexual abuse of a minor was committed by the Reverend Albert M. Liberatore." (Votum at 1.)
On November 5, 2004, Plaintiff filed a Complaint in this Court. (Doc. 1-1.) Therein, Plaintiff asserted a claim pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 2255, a section of The Child Abuse Victims' Rights Act of 1986. (Doc. 1-1 ¶¶ 48-51.) Plaintiff also raised state law claims of assault and battery (Doc. 1-1 ¶¶ 52-55), vicarious liability (Doc. 1-1 ¶¶ 56-62), aiding and abetting (Doc. 1-1 ¶¶ 63-68), negligent hiring, supervision and retention (Doc. 1-1 ¶¶ 69-75), negligence per se (Doc. 1-1 ¶¶ 76-81), intentional infliction of emotional distress (Doc. 1-1 ¶¶ 82-88), and breach of fiduciary duty (Doc. 1-1 ¶¶ 89-95). On November 3, 2006, both the Diocesan Defendants and Brother Antonucci filed motions for summary judgment. (Docs. 75, 76.) These motions are fully briefed and ripe for disposition.
Summary judgment is appropriate if "the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law." FED. R. CIV. P. 56(c). A fact is material if proof of its existence or nonexistence might affect the outcome of the suit under the applicable substantive law. See Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248 (1986).
Where there is no material fact in dispute, the moving party need only establish that it is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Where, however, there is a disputed issue of material fact, summary judgment is appropriate only if the factual dispute is not a genuine one. See id. at 248. An issue of material fact is genuine if "a reasonable jury could return a verdict for the nonmoving party." Id.
Where there is a material fact in dispute, the moving party has the initial burden of proving that: (1) there is no genuine issue of material fact; and (2) the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. See CHARLES ALAN WRIGHT & ARTHURR. MILLER, FEDERALPRACTICE AND PROCEDURE: CIVIL 2D § 2727 (2d ed. 1983). The moving party may present its own evidence or, where the nonmoving party has the burden of proof, simply point out to the Court that "the nonmoving party has ...