United States District Court, E.D. Pennsylvania
May 20, 2004.
TOWNSHIP OF RADNOR, et al
The opinion of the court was delivered by: BRUCE KAUFFMAN, District Judge
MEMORANDUM AND ORDER
Plaintiff Deirdre Blain brings this action under 42 U.S.C. § 1983
for alleged violations of her substantive due process rights by the
Township of Radnor, its Board of Commissioners, and Commissioners Clinton
A. Stuntebeck, William A. Spingler, James M. Pierce, Lisa Paolino-Adams,
Harry G. Mahoney, and Graham D. Andrews in their individual capacities
(collectively, "Defendants"). Now before the Court is Defendants' Motion
for Summary Judgment. For the reasons stated below, the Motion will be
I. Factual Background
Plaintiff owned two parcels of land in the Township of Radnor with a
combined size of 13.6 acres. Amended Complaint ("Compl.") ¶ 1. She
submitted her subdivision plan (the "plan") to the Township for
preliminary approval on July 2, 1999. Compl. ¶ 19. The Planning
Commission and Plaintiff agreed to extend the statutory period for
consideration of her plan through November 9, 1999. Plaintiff's Response to Motion for
Summary Judgment ("Resp.") at 3.
Although the plan complied with the Township's density ordinance,
several neighbors spoke at Planning Commission meetings about their
concerns regarding the density of the new development. Resp. at 4-6.
Relying on the opinion of the Township Engineer, Duncan Hubley, that the
plan violated two provisions of the Township's subdivision ordinances,
the Planning Commission recommended denial. Id. at 5-6.
According to Hubley, Lots 7 and 8 violated Section 255-25A (which
prohibited the formation of remnants), and Lot 6 violated Section
255-34E (which required that lots be "conveniently shaped").
Hubley made his recommendation despite advice from the Township
Solicitor that the lots conformed with the ordinances. After the first
Planning Commission meeting, the attorney for Plaintiff, John Snyder,
wrote to the Solicitor, Eugene Evans, to ask about the alleged
violations. Id. In response, Evans left the following voicemail
message for Snyder:
Hey John, this is Gene Evans. I'm getting back to
you on that letter of September 27, 1999 with
regards to the regular shaped lots. I spoke to
Duncan. I told Duncan that you were right. Once
you put those new lots together, they are very
regular shaped. I told him to leave you alone,
Resp. at 5. Evans did not attend any Planning Commission meetings
considering the plan because he was suffering from terminal cancer, and
Defendants claim that they never had a formal recommendation from him
that they approve the plan. Motion Ex. C at 30-31, Ex. F at 13.
After receiving the Planning Commission's recommendation, the Board of
Commissioners (the "Board") considered the plan for the first time on
October 18, 1999. Resp. at 7. After an additional meeting on November 8, the Board voted on
November 22 to deny the plan on the basis of its failure to comport with
Sections 255-25A and 34E. Id. at 9.
Plaintiff filed a Notice of Land Use Appeal in the Delaware County
Court of Common Pleas on December 14, 1999. Resp. Ex. 25. In the
meantime, Board members met with neighbors to discuss the possibility of
buying development rights from the developer of Plaintiff's property, but
this effort was unsuccessful. See Motion Ex. B at 114-120,
Resp. Ex. 35.
On June 8, 2001, after a lengthy analysis of Sections 255-25A and 34E,
the Court of Common Pleas concluded that because Plaintiff discussed the
remnant issue with the Solicitor and followed the procedures set forth in
the Township ordinances, the Township could not disapprove the plan on
the grounds that it violated 255-25A. Resp. Ex. 27 at 15-16. The Court
also found that the "conveniently shaped" language in 255-34E was too
vague to support a denial of the plan, and accordingly, the denial was
arbitrary and capricious. Id. at 19-20. The Court further
stated that the Board's written denial was insufficient because it "did
not specify the defects complained of or describe the requirements which
have not been met." Id at 21-22. In addition, because the final denial
was made after the November 9 statutory deadline, the plan was deemed
approved as of that date. Id. at 23.
The Court of Common Pleas ordered the Board to approve Plaintiff's
subdivision application "forthwith." Id. at i. The Township
appealed, but the day before its brief was due in October, 2001, it
withdrew the appeal. Resp. at 12. The Resolution authorizing withdrawal
stated in part that the appeal had been taken due to "the announced
interests of some neighbors in the immediate area to acquire some of the
development rights for some or all of the properties in question and because of some interest on the part of Radnor
Township in assisting those citizens in maintaining open space." Resp. at
Ex. 28. The Resolution further stated that it was "legally and
financially impractical to proceed" with the litigation and directed the
Solicitor to withdraw the appeal. Id.
Plaintiff submitted a plan for final approval on December 17, 2001.
Resp. at 15. At a Planning Commission meeting on January 8 and a Board
meeting on January 22, three proposed changes were discussed.
Id. at 15-16. On January 8, there was a discussion about the
Township Engineer's request that Plaintiff install a sewer line for
houses located off of the subdivision property, a request that apparently
was made of all subdivision applicants. Motion at 26; Resp. at 36.*fn2
On January 22, a discussion took place about limiting construction on
Saturdays. Resp. Ex. 33 at 13. Both conditions were included in a draft
resolution that was faxed to Plaintiff for her approval on February 7.
Id. Ex. 41. In a letter of that same date, her attorney
requested that the Resolution be revised to eliminate the two conditions,
and the next day they were eliminated. Id. Ex. 41, 42. The
third proposed condition involved the creation of walking paths across
the property.*fn3 At the January 22 Board meeting, Commissioner James
Pierce threatened to condemn land for walking paths if Plaintiff refused
to grant a right-of-way voluntarily. See Resp. Ex. 33.*fn4 Plaintiffs attorney asserts in his affidavit that Commissioner
Pierce's threats about condemning the land "imposed upon [Plaintiff] and
her buyer an obligation to disclose this fact to all future home buyers,
which would have the effect of lowering the value of the property." Resp.
Ex. 1 ¶ 35. The plan received final approval on February 8, 2002,
without any of the three proposed conditions. Resp. at 38.
II. LeRal Standard
In deciding a motion for summary judgment pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P.
56, the test is "whether there is a genuine issue of material fact and,
if not, whether the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of
law." Medical Protective Co. v. Watkins, 198 F.3d 100, 103 (3d
Cir. 1999) (quoting Armbruster v. Unisys Corp., 32 F.3d 768,
777 (3d Cir. 1994)). "[S]ummary judgment will not lie if the dispute
about a material fact is `genuine,' that is, if the evidence is such that
a reasonable jury could return a verdict for the nonmoving party."
Anderson v. Liberty Lobby. Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248 (1986). The
Court must examine the evidence in the light most favorable to the
non-moving party and resolve all reasonable inferences in that party's
favor. Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. v. Zenith Radio Corp.,
475 U.S. 574, 587 (1986). However, "there can be `no genuine issue as to any
material fact' . . . [where the non-moving party's] complete failure of
proof concerning an essential element of [its] case necessarily renders
all other facts immaterial." Celotex Corp. v. Catrett,
477 U.S. 317, 322-23 (1986).
A party may seek damages under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 for the deprivation
of federal statutory or constitutional rights by any person acting under color of state
law. 42 U.S.C. § 1983. Plaintiff alleges that Defendants violated her
substantive due process rights by delaying approval of her plan.
As a threshold matter, the Court finds that Plaintiff has a property
interest worthy of substantive due process protection. The parties do not
dispute Plaintiff's ownership of the land at issue, and the Third Circuit
has stated that an owner's use and enjoyment of land is protected by
substantive due process. DeBlasio v. Zoning Board of
Adjustment. 53 F.3d 592, 600 (3d Cir. 1995) (abrogated on other
grounds by United Artists Theatre Circuit, Inc. v. Township of
Warrington, 316 F.3d 392 (3d Cir. 2003)).
The next question, however, is whether the interference by Defendants
in Plaintiff's use and enjoyment of her land rose to the level necessary
to implicate substantive due process.*fn5 Until a few years ago, the
standard in this Circuit for determining whether land use decisions
violated substantive due process rights was whether they were taken with
an improper motive or were arbitrarily or irrationally reached.
United Artists, 316 F.3d at 394; DeBlasio, 53 F.3d at
593. In United Artists, however, the Third Circuit
significantly raised the bar for such claims. To prevail, a plaintiff
must demonstrate that the disputed conduct "shocked the conscience" as
that standard was defined by the Supreme Court in Sacramento v.
Lewis, 523 U.S. 833 (1998). United Artists, 316 F.3d at
394. "[O]nly the most egregious official conduct can be said to be
`arbitrary in the constitutional sense' . . . [T]he Due Process Clause
was intended to prevent government officials `from abusing [their] power, or employing it
as an instrument of oppression.'" Lewis, 523 U.S. at 846
(quoting Collins v. Harker Heights, 503 U.S. 115, 126, 129 (1992)
(internal quotations omitted)). Accordingly, "the due process guarantee
does not entail a body of constitutional law imposing liability whenever
someone cloaked with state authority causes harm." Id. at 848.
It is particularly important in the land use context that the district
court avoid sitting as a "zoning board of appeals." United
Artists, 316 F.3d at 402.
The conscience-shocking inquiry is fact-specific. The Lewis
Court explained that, "[w]hile the measure of what is conscience shocking
is no calibrated yard stick, it does, as Judge Friendly put it, `poin[t]
the way.'" Id. at 847 (citing Johnson v. Glick,
481 F.2d 1028, 1033 (2d Cir. 1973)). Mere negligence cannot constitute a
violation. Lewis, 523 U.S. at 849. "Conduct intended to injure in some
way unjustifiable by any government interest is the sort of official
action most likely to rise to the conscience-shocking level."
Id. at 849. "Deliberate indifference that shocks in one
environment may not be so patently egregious in another, and our concern
with preserving the constitutional proportions of substantive due process
demands an exact analysis of circumstances." Id. at 850.
The Third Circuit has not yet applied the shocks-the-conscience
standard to the land use context in any precedential opinion, but a
series of district court cases provide some guidance.*fn6 Substantive
due process rights may be implicated by corrupt or fraudulent government
conduct. See Development Group. LLC v. Franklin Township Board of
Supervisors, No. Civ. A. 03-2936, 2003 WL 22358440 (E.D. Pa. Sept.
24, 2003) (denying a Motion to Dismiss where plaintiff alleged that officials delayed approval for development while
attempting to "buy off plaintiff in violation of Pennsylvania law). Such
rights also might be implicated when another constitutional right is
violated in addition to the due process right to the use and enjoyment of
property. See Associates in Obstetrics & Gynecology v. Upper
Merion Township, 270 F. Supp.2d 633, 656 (E.D. Pa. 2003) (holding
that selective enforcement of a zoning ordinance against an abortion
clinic with the intention of "harm[ing] Plaintiffs' business interests
and . . . restrict[ing] their practice of lawful medical procedures"
implicated substantive due process rights); American Marine Rail NJ,
LLC v. City of Bavonne, 289 F. Supp.2d 569, 576-77 (D.N.J. 2003)
(denying summary judgment where rejection of proposed waste transfer
center was alleged to have violated the dormant Commerce Clause).
This case does not involve fraud or corruption, nor does it implicate
constitutional rights other than, potentially, the right to substantive
due process for the use and enjoyment of property. Defendants denied the
application on the basis of a misinterpretation of the Township's
ordinances despite their Solicitor's advice. The facts presented here are
similar to those considered in two recent district court opinions that
have been affirmed by the Third Circuit: Corneal v. Jackson
Township, No. CIV.1:CV-00-1192, 2003 WL 23413767 (M.D. Pa. Jul. 28,
2003), aff'd, No. 03-3587, 2004 WL 790315 (3d Cir. Apr. 13,
2004), and Levin v. Upper Makefield Township, No.
CIV.A.99-CV-5313, 2003 WL 21652301 (E.D. Pa. Feb. 25, 2003), aff'd, No.
03-1860, 2004 WL 449189 (3d Cir. Mar. 8, 2004).
In Corneal, the plaintiffs purchased a ninety-five acre tract
with the intention of subdividing. Id at *1. After the plaintiffs
contracted to sell 25 acres for $150,000, the Township declared a
temporary moratorium on subdividing land pending the enactment of a
formal subdivision ordinance. Id. at *2. Then, when the
plaintiffs attempted to obtain the necessary permits to begin
constructing their own home on the land, the Township refused to provide
an application for a building permit. Id. at *2-3. The
Township's Building Permit Officer told one of the plaintiffs that he was
"a trouble making yuppie from over the mountain." Id. at *3.
Despite the existence of both bad faith and personal animus, the court
found no substantive due process violation because the evidence did not
indicate "that the challenged decision [was] completely unrelated in any
way to a rational land use goal." Id. at *7. "[E]ven
allegations of bad faith enforcement of an invalid zoning ordinance do
not, without more, state a substantive due process claim." Id.
(quoting Bituminous Materials Inc. v. Rice County., 126 F.3d 1068, 1070
(8th Cir. 1997)). Because the plaintiffs failed to "demonstrate that the
land use decision . . . was so totally irrational that it could not
possibly be the real reason for the locality's action or, alternately,
that the locality applied its decision selectively so that its land use
concern could not have been legitimate despite the rational basis for
it," summary judgment was granted for the defendants. Id. at
In Levin, the plaintiff required a zoning variance to build a
single-family dwelling. Levin, 2003 WL 21652301 at *1. A Common
Pleas judge reversed the decision of the Zoning Hearing Board and granted
the variance. Id. The Township appealed, the Commonwealth Court
affirmed, and the Pennsylvania Supreme Court denied allocatur.
Id. at *2. Nonetheless, the Township waited an additional year
and a half after the denial of allocatur before granting the final
building permit. Id. The Township also cashed the plaintiff's
$2300 permit fee before any permits were issued and tried to enact a new
setback ordinance in order to prevent the project from proceeding.
Id. at *9. The district court found that although there was
strong evidence that defendants had behaved with "a bad motive and purposeful intention
to delay issuing" a permit, and although cashing the check was "senseless
and spiteful," the behavior failed to rise to a conscience-shocking
As in Corneal and Levin, the facts of this case
reveal possible impropriety and bad faith, but they fail to rise to the
level of a substantive due process violation. Drawing all reasonable
inferences in favor of Plaintiff, it appears that Defendants denied the
plan in direct contravention of the Solicitor's advice that such action
would violate the Board's legal duty to approve the plan. This conduct
was improper, but under the circumstances, the omission does not shock
the conscience as that term has been defined by the Supreme Court in
Lewis, 523 U.S. at 846-50. The Solicitor advised the Township Engineer
and Plaintiff's attorney, but he did not directly advise Defendants. No
one ever obtained a formal opinion from the Solicitor; rather,
Plaintiff's evidence on the point consists primarily of a transcribed
voicemail message. Defendants should have known that if they were either
unwilling or unable to consult the ailing Solicitor, they should have
sought legal advice elsewhere. This omission was merely negligent,
however, and negligence is not sufficient to violate substantive due
process. Id. at 849.
Plaintiff alleges that Defendants' true motivation was the desire to
limit new development. Assuming arguendo that the reasons
stated for the denial were entirely pretextual, there still would be no
constitutional violation. The Township has a legitimate interest in land
use planning and the preservation of open space. See Westrum Land
Development Corp. v. Whitpain Township, No. Civ.A. 01-5535, 2002 WL
32351106, *5 (E.D. Pa. Oct. 23, 2002). Defendants' pursuit of a
legitimate interest through the improper application of the Township's
ordinances does not amount to a constitutional violation. Id.
(under the pre-United Artists standard, a Township's efforts to preserve more open space than the
amount permitted by law would not violate substantive due process).
Furthermore, Plaintiff had an opportunity to seek redress for the
Township's mistakes and improprieties in the state courts. As the Second
Substantive due process is an outer limit on the
legitimacy of governmental action. It does not
forbid governmental actions that might fairly be
deemed arbitrary or capricious and for that reason
correctable in a state court lawsuit seeking
review of administrative action. Substantive due
process standards are violated only by conduct
that is so outrageously arbitrary as to constitute
a gross abuse of governmental authority.
Natale v. Town of Ridgefield, 170 F.3d 258
, 263 (2d Cir.
1999). The slow pace of the state court proceedings does not create a
claim for damages, because "the ordinary lapse of time required for the
processing of an appeal from the denial of a permit does not permit a
plaintiff to recast a case as a delay claim." Holland Transport,
Inc. v. Township of Upper Chichester, No. CIV. A.00-397, 2002 WL
31518836 (E.D. Pa. Oct. 24, 2002) at *15 (quoting Sameric Corp. of
Delaware, Inc. v. City of Philadelphia, 142 F.3d 582
, 598 (3d
Cir. 1998). The Township's decision to appeal from the Court of Common
Pleas decision was not improper, nor do the Board's efforts to help the
neighbors purchase development rights shock the conscience. See
Holland Transport, 2002 WL 31518836 at *22 (officials' efforts in
opposition to development plan, including discussions with third parties,
are insufficient to raise a material question of fact on substantive due
Once the appeal was withdrawn on October 22, 2001, the Board acted
quickly to approve the plan. Plaintiff submitted her final plan to the
Township on December 17, 2001, and final approval was given on February
8, 2002. Although the Township attempted to require Plaintiff to install
sewers and to restrict Saturday construction hours, these proposed
conditions were removed from the Resolution the day after Plaintiff's attorney
asserted a written objection. At the January 22 meeting, the Board
discussed creating walking trails, but the plan received final approval a
few weeks later without any walking trail requirement. Plaintiff alleges
that the mere suggestion that the Board might condemn the properly
impacted the value of the land. Even if this were true, however, such
harm would not shock the conscience under the circumstances of this case.
The Township has a legitimate interest in land use planning, and comments
by two Board members about the possibility of condemning land are not
enough to violate substantive due process. See Westrum Land
Development Corp., 2002 WL 32351106 at *4.
Examining all evidence in the light most favorable to Plaintiff and
resolving all reasonable inferences in her favor, Defendants' conduct
does not violate substantive due process. Accordingly, Defendants are not
liable under § 1983, and the Court will grant the Motion for Summary
Judgment in their favor. An appropriate Order follows. ORDER
AND NOW, this ____ day of May, 2004, upon consideration of
Defendants' Motion for Summary Judgment (docket no. 28), Plaintiffs
response thereto (docket no. 30), Defendants' Reply to Response (docket
no. 34), and after a Hearing on May 3, 2004, it is ORDERED that
Defendants' Motion for Summary Judgment is GRANTED for the
reasons stated in the accompanying Memorandum. Accordingly, judgment is
entered in favor of Defendants. The Clerk of the Court shall mark this