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June 30, 1998


The opinion of the court was delivered by: ROBRENO



 June 30, 1998

 Donna and Jeffrey McDermott, individually and on behalf of the McDermott Group, Inc., (collectively "plaintiffs"), initiated this lawsuit against defendant Philip Nasuti ("Nasuti"), *fn1" asserting both contract and tort claims. Plaintiffs alleged that Nasuti breached a stock purchase agreement, under which Nasuti was to purchase stock in, and perform management services for, the McDermott Group, Inc. ("the McDermott Group"), a Pennsylvania corporation formed by the McDermotts for the sole purpose of operating a Party City franchise store in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania ("the store"). *fn2" Plaintiffs also contend that Nasuti owed a fiduciary duty to the McDermott Group, arising from Nasuti's position as manager of the McDermott Group store and as an agent of the McDermotts. Plaintiffs claimed that Nasuti breached this fiduciary duty by permitting the store to fail, abandoning it, and usurping business opportunities to benefit Nasuti's own ventures; and converted McDermott Group property and McDermott Group employees' time for his own benefit. Plaintiffs sought damages from Nasuti related to the liquidation of the store as a result of Nasuti's alleged breach of contract and tortious conduct, and also claimed punitive damages. Nasuti, in turn, filed a counterclaim against the McDermott Group for an accounting.

 The case was tried before a jury, which rendered a verdict in plaintiffs' favor on the contract claim for $ 376,489.49 *fn3" on the breach of fiduciary duty claim for $ 137,000, and assessed punitive damages against Nasuti in the amount of $ 375,000, for a total of $ 888,489.49. The jury, however, found that plaintiffs had not proved that Nasuti converted the McDermott Group's property. Finally, the jury found for the plaintiffs on Nasuti's counterclaim.

 Before the Court are Nasuti's post-trial motions claiming various points of legal and trial error, and requesting judgment as a matter of law, a new trial, or in the alternative, remittitur, and plaintiff's motion to amend judgment to add prejudgment interest. For the reasons stated herein, the Court will grant in part Nasuti's motion for judgment as a matter of law and deny it part, and will grant plaintiff's motion to amend the judgment to add prejudgment interest. The Court will, therefore, reduce the amount of compensatory damages by $ 111,962.39, add prejudgment interest of $ 65,387.01, and will enter an amended judgment in plaintiffs' favor in the amount of $ 841,914.11. Nasuti's motions for a new trial, or in the alternative remittitur, will be denied.


 Donna and Jeffery McDermott decided to open a franchise operation as a family business in 1992. After engaging in extensive research they settled on a store that would sell party goods. For the purposes of owning and operating the store, the McDermotts formed the McDermott Group, of which they owned 100 percent of the stock. On November 23, 1993, the McDermott Group, entered into a franchise agreement with Party City Corporation ("Party City Corp.") to operate a Party City franchise store in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. *fn4"

 On February 4, 1994, the McDermott Group obtained a loan ("the loan agreement") from Royal Bank for the amount of $ 200,000 to finance the Party City franchise venture. The McDermotts individually guaranteed the loan. The loan agreement required, inter alia, that the McDermott Group obtain Royal Bank's written consent prior to any change in the McDermott Group's ownership or control.

 The McDermott Group store opened on March 19, 1994. In May 1994, Jeffery McDermott learned that he had been transferred by his employer from the Philadelphia area to Arlington, Virginia. Donna McDermott then discussed with Party City Corp. selling all or part of the McDermott Group's assets to Party City Corp. The negotiations did not prove fruitful. In early July 1994, the McDermotts began discussions with Nasuti, who at the time was an owner of five other Party City franchises, and his stepson, Michael Brand, *fn5" to sell all or part of the store to Nasuti. On August 30, 1994, Nasuti entered into a contract to purchase 51 percent of McDermott Group stock ("the stock purchase agreement") for $ 56,409.409. As part of the transaction, *fn6" Nasuti also agreed to undertake the management of the store. Under the stock purchase agreement, Nasuti was to receive $ 5,000 per month as a management fee for running the store and $ 700 per month for office expenses. On August 31, 1994, immediately following the signing of the stock purchase agreement, the McDermotts moved to Virginia and Nasuti took over the management of the store.

 Under Nasuti's management, the store did not perform as well as projected during the Halloween season, the most important business season of the year. At the time, the McDermotts and Nasuti concluded that the poor business performance was due to a "cannibalization effect" caused by the presence of another Party City store nearby in East Norriton, Pennsylvania. *fn7" As a result, in November 1994, Donna McDermott, Nasuti, and officials from Party City Corp. began to discuss moving the store to a new location in the hopes of improving its performance.

 In December 1994, at Nasuti's request, the McDermotts inspected a site at the Northeast Shopping Center, located at Roosevelt Boulevard and Welsh Road in Philadelphia, as a possible new location for the store. Thereafter, the McDermotts agreed to move the store to that location, and Party City Corp. approved the new site. At the same time, however, and unbeknownst to the McDermotts, Nasuti had been negotiating with Party City Corp. for several sites for his own new franchises, including a site located at the intersection of Cottman and Bustleton Boulevards, which was approximately three miles from the Northeast Shopping Center. *fn8"

 In January 1995, Nasuti requested permission from the McDermotts to open a Party City store under his own name at the Cottman and Bustleton location. *fn9" The McDermotts refused permission to Nasuti to open a store at the Cottman and Bustleton Boulevards location because they feared that its close proximity to the Northeast Shopping Center would damage the McDermott Group store's business. In fact, it was the proximity of another Party City store which the parties suspected had eroded the business of the store in King of Prussia. *fn10"

 On February 9, 1995 a loan committee at Royal Bank considered both the approval of the stock purchase agreement of August 30, 1994 and the relocation of the store to the Northeast Shopping Center. The committee approved the stock purchase and the relocation with additional conditions, including that Nasuti and his wife, Helene Nasuti, personally guarantee Royal Banks's loan to the McDermott Group *fn11" and that Nasuti's management fee be reduced to $ 4,000 per month.

 In March 1995, and without prior notice to the McDermotts, Nasuti instructed his attorney to "cancel the contract", because, in Nasuti's opinion, the McDermott's had breached their agreement by not investing adequate cash into the operation of the store. On March 13, 1995, Nasuti's attorney sent a letter to plaintiffs to that effect. The McDermotts contend that because Nasuti abandoned the store and at the same time also "impeded" the move of the store by planning to open his own store within three miles of the new location, they were faced with the choice of operating the store in King of Prussia or liquidating it.

 In light of these circumstances, the McDermotts decided that the best option would be to liquidate the King of Prussia store. To carry out the liquidation, the McDermotts hired Stephen Cucinotti, an experienced liquidator. The store closed in April 1995, upon completion of the liquidation process. Shortly thereafter, Nasuti proceeded to open two other Party City stores -- one at the Northeast Shopping Center site and another at the Cottman and Bustleton Avenues site.


 A. Judgement as a Matter of Law

 In ruling on a motion for judgment as a matter of law under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 50(b), the evidence in the case must be viewed in the light most favorable to the successful party, and every reasonable inference therefrom must be drawn in that party's favor. See Fineman v. Armstrong World Indus., Inc., 980 F.2d 171, 190 (3d Cir. 1992); Fireman's Fund Ins. Co. v. Videfreeze Corp., 540 F.2d 1171, 1178 (3d Cir. 1976) ("The trial judge, in his review of the evidence, . . . must expose the evidence to the strongest light favorable to the party against whom the motion is made and give him the advantage of every fair and reasonable inference"). It is impermissible to question the credibility of witnesses, or to weigh conflicting evidence as would a fact-finder. See Parkway Garage, Inc. v. City of Philadelphia, 5 F.3d 685, 691 (3d Cir. 1993). Applying these precepts, a jury verdict can be displaced by judgment as a matter of law only if "the record is 'critically deficient of that minimum quantum of evidence from which the jury might reasonably afford relief.'" Dawson v. Chrysler Corp., 630 F.2d 950, 959 (3d Cir. 1980) (quoting Denneny v. Siegel, 407 F.2d 433, 439 (3d Cir. 1969)), cert. denied, 450 U.S. 959, 67 L. Ed. 2d 383, 101 S. Ct. 1418 (1981).

 B. New Trial

 Similar concerns restrict the Court's discretion in ordering a new trial pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 59. "Such an action effects a denigration of the jury system and to the extent that new trials are granted the judge takes over, if he does not usurp, the prime function of the jury as the trier of the facts." Lind v. Schenley Indus., Inc., 278 F.2d 79, 90 (3d Cir. 1960) (en banc). A new trial on the basis that the verdict is against the weight of the evidence can be granted "only where a miscarriage of justice would result if the verdict were to stand." Klein v. Hollings, 992 F.2d 1285, 1290 (3d Cir. 1993). Where the proffered basis is trial error, "the court's inquiry . . . is twofold. It must first determine whether an error was made in the course of the trial, and then must determine whether that error was so prejudicial that refusal to grant a new trial would be inconsistent with substantial justice." Farra v. Stanley-Bostitch, Inc., 838 F. Supp. 1021, 1026 (E.D. Pa. 1993) (internal quotations omitted), aff'd without op., 31 F.3d 1171 (3d Cir. 1994); see Fed. R. Civ. P. 61. An error in jury instructions must be so substantial that, viewed in light of the evidence in the case and the charge as a whole, "'the instruction was capable of confusing and thereby misleading the jury.'" Link v. Mercedes-Benz of N. Am., Inc., 788 F.2d 918, 922 (3d Cir. 1986) (quoting United States v. Fischbach & Moore, Inc., 750 F.2d 1183, 1195 (3d Cir. 1984)).

 C. Remittitur

 Defendant argues, in the alternative, that the Court should grant a remittitur in this case due to the excessiveness of the damages awarded. Remittitur is appropriate if the Court "finds that a decision of the jury is clearly unsupported and/or excessive." Spence v. Board of Educ. of Christina Sch. Dist., 806 F.2d 1198, 1201 (3d Cir. 1986); see 11 Charles A. Wright & Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice and Procedure: Civil § 2815 (1973). If remittitur is granted, the party against whom it is entered can accept it or can proceed to a new trial on the issue of damages.


 A. Contract

 1. Liability

 Nasuti contends that he is entitled to judgment as a matter of law on the issue of contract liability because the evidence at trial did not support a finding that a condition precedent to the contract was satisfied. Specifically, Nasuti points to section 2.4(a) of the stock purchase agreement which provides:

2.4 Conditions to Purchaser's Obligations. The Purchaser's obligation to purchase two hundred four shares shall be subject to the following conditions at or before closing hereunder:
(a) Royal Bank and the Small Business Administration shall have consented to the transactions described herein;

 Ex. P-9 sec. 2.4. Nasuti argues that Royal Bank and the Small Business Administration ("SBA") did not actually approve the stock purchase agreement, and that this approval was required as a condition precedent to the his obligation to perform under the contract. Nasuti points to Royal Bank loan committee's minutes of February 9, 1995 which addressed the McDermott Group's "Request for Approval for the sale of 51% of the company and the relocation of the store." (Ex. P-13.) According to the minutes, "the Committee approved the request with the following added conditions." Nasuti claims that the stock purchase agreement was not valid until the conditions listed, one of which was to "try to obtain Mrs. Nasuti's guaranty," were satisfied. Nasuti then argues that because his wife Helene Nasuti's guarantee was not obtained, the stock purchase agreement was never fully approved. *fn13"

 Plaintiffs respond that the purchase of the stock was not conditioned upon such approvals being obtained, and that even if satisfaction of the condition was a predicate to performance, the condition was satisfied, excused or waived.

 a. The condition was satisfied

 In a bilateral contract, if a condition precedent is not satisfied, the obligations of the non-performing party are discharged. Francis Gerard Janson P.C. v. Frost, 422 Pa. Super. 36, 618 A.2d 1003, 1006 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1993). The party alleging the breach of contract bears the burden of proof that the condition was satisfied. Mellon Bank, N.A. v. Aetna Business Credit, Inc., 619 F.2d 1001, 1007-1008 (3d Cir. 1980) (applying Pennsylvania law). Jeffrey McDermott testified at trial that in August 1994 he received oral approval of the transaction without conditions from Daniel Gallagher, an officer of Royal Bank. (Tr. 8/26/97 at 47). *fn14" Further, the McDermotts' attorney who had negotiated the transaction, Jack Weiner, Esquire, testified at trial that based on his dealings with Royal Bank in this case it was his understanding that Royal Bank had approved the transaction. (Tr. 8/22/97 at 194-95.) *fn15" Based upon the evidence presented, the Court concludes that there was sufficient evidence on the record for a reasonable jury to find that the condition of prior approval by Royal Bank was satisfied.

 b. The condition was excused

i. Nasuti's misconduct impeded the satisfaction of the condition

 Nasuti argues that the minutes of the loan committee's February 9, 1995 meeting imposed additional conditions precedent to the agreement. Nasuti specifically points to the alleged requirement that Nasuti's wife's personal guarantee be obtained. First, plaintiffs argue that Mrs. Nasuti's personal guarantee was not really a mandatory condition because the minutes stated only that Royal Bank would "try to obtain Mrs. Nasuti's guarantee." (Ex. P-13 (emphasis added).) Second, plaintiffs claim that even if Helene Nasuti's personal guarantee was a condition precedent which had not been satisfied, the reason it was not satisfied was because defendant himself refused to cooperate by not obtaining his wife's personal guarantee in "bad faith." Plaintiffs contend that Nasuti's argument that this "condition" was not satisfied is a mere pretext, and that the testimony showed that Helene Nasuti routinely gave her personal guarantee in other business transactions. Because, according to plaintiffs, her failure to provide her personal guarantee in this instance was due to Nasuti's bad faith, the condition was excused.

 If a party acts to hinder the satisfaction of a condition, the condition is excused. Restatement (Second) of Contracts § 225 cmt. b (1979). In other words, where a party claiming the condition has not been satisfied is the cause of the non-occurrence, he or she may not claim the non-occurrence to his or her advantage. Commonwealth Dep't of Transp. v. W.P. Dickerson & Son, Inc., 42 Pa. Commw. 359, 400 A.2d 930, 932 (Pa. Commw. Ct. 1979); Craig Coal Mining Co. v. Romani, 355 Pa. Super. 296, 513 A.2d 437, 440 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1986) (A party "may not, in fact, take advantage of an insurmountable obstacle ...

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