On Appeal From the United States District Court For the Western District of Pennsylvania
(D.C. Crim. Action Nos. 94-cr-00233-1, 94-cr-00233-2, and 94-cr-00233-3)
BEFORE: STAPLETON, GREENBERG and COWEN, Circuit Judges
(Opinion Filed October 21, 1997)
A jury in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania found Appellants Walter Cross, Jules Melograne, and Nunzio Melograne guilty of one count each of conspiracy to deprive Pennsylvania residents of their civil right to fair and impartial trial, 18 U.S.C. Section(s) 241, and conspiracy to commit mail fraud, 18 U.S.C. SS 371 and 1341. All three defendants appeal both convictions. They assert that the civil rights conviction is based on a vague and undefined theory that cannot support a criminal conviction, and that the only mailings involved were not sufficiently connected to the fraudulent scheme to bring it within the federal mail fraud statute. We hold that established precedent provided clear notice to the defendants that their agreement would constitute a conspiracy to violate a civil right of the victims of that
agreement; therefore, we affirm the convictions for conspiracy to violate civil rights. We reverse the mail fraud conspiracy conviction, however, because none of the mailings contemplated in the conspiracy was undertaken "for the purpose of executing" the scheme to defraud Pennsylvania and its citizens of honest government services.
From December 1990 through July 1993, Cross and the Melogranes conspired to "fix" cases coming before the Statutory Appeals Division of the Court of Common Pleas of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (the "Statutory Appeals Court"). In statutory appeals, the court exercises de novo review of the decisions of courts of the "minor judiciary" on matters such as traffic offenses and municipal ordinance violations. Jules Melograne was a District Justice who presided over one of the courts of the minor judiciary. Cross was the supervisor of the Statutory Appeals Court in Allegheny County, where he performed a number of duties, including (1) determining when defendants, attorneys, and witnesses (most often police officers) were present to begin hearings, (2) controlling the order of hearings, (3) handling requests for postponements, and (4) signing pay vouchers for police officers who had appeared as witnesses. Nunzio Melograne was the "tipstaff" for the judge assigned to hear statutory appeals. He kept the court calendar, maintained the case files, called the cases, and swore the witnesses.
Viewing the evidence at trial in the light most favorable to the government, the record indicates that Cross and the Melogranes conspired to influence the decisions of the court in a variety of ways. Most frequently, they would utilize their authority and access to the decision maker to assure resolution of the case in the defendants' favor. Cross repeatedly procured the absence of police officer witnesses at hearings by telling them that they were not needed, asking them to leave, or by calling the hearings early, before the police witnesses had arrived. These tactics led to automatic not-guilty verdicts. See Pa. R. Crim. P. 86(f). Cross asked the judge not to rule on certain cases during the hearing, but to take them under advisement, or "c.a.v."
After the hearings had concluded, Cross and Nunzio Melograne would accompany the judge to his chambers with the c.a.v. cases, and after fifteen to twenty minutes they would emerge with several not-guilty verdicts. FBI surveillance also recorded Cross discussing defendants being found not guilty "because Jules wants it," App. at 929, presumably referring to Jules Melograne. Witnesses reported that they had observed stars, check marks, or "c.a.v." notations by defendants' names on Cross's trial calendar before they had appeared; such defendants normally were found not guilty or received reduced sentences at their hearings. In addition, Cross was observed accepting food, tickets to sporting events, fruit baskets, and other items despite his office's policy against employees accepting gifts. Witnesses testified that the gifts had been offered in exchange for promises by Cross to reduce or eliminate citations and to influence hearings.
On other occasions, Cross and the Melogranes would work to assure that a case would be decided against the defendant--as the government called them, the "to be found guilty" cases. One witness testified that she had overheard Cross telling the judge in one case to "find this sucker guilty," and on another occasion, the defendant was found guilty after Cross's prompting to the judge even though the assistant district attorney at the hearing had attempted to withdraw the charge on the ground that the evidence did not demonstrate a violation. In yet another case, FBI agents recorded one of Cross's telephone conversations in which the husband of an accident victim called Cross and asked that the case against the woman who had caused the accident be heard first on its scheduled hearing date. In the course of their discussion, Cross ...