Korupp by Nationwide and that Nationwide may prorate its underinsurance coverage with the other insurance coverage available to Flynn. These issues, which concern the dollar amount of Nationwide's liability to Flynn, were decided in Flynn's favor by the state arbitration panel at the third hearing.
In complaints filed pursuant to the Federal Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201,
a court's exercise of jurisdiction is discretionary. International Harvester Co. v. Deere & Co., 623 F.2d 1207, 1217 (7th Cir. 1980). In deciding whether a case is appropriate for declaratory relief, a court will consider: (1) whether a declaratory judgment would settle the controversy; (2) whether declaratory relief would serve a useful purpose in clarifying the legal relations at issue; (3) whether the declaratory action has been initiated "to provide an arena for a race for res judicata," American Home Assurance Co. v. Evans, 791 F.2d 61, 63 (6th Cir. 1986); (4) whether declaratory relief would create friction between the state and federal courts and improperly encroach on state jurisdiction; and (5) whether an alternative remedy exists that is more effective. Id. Evaluating Nationwide's complaint in light of the criteria set forth in Evans, I find that to exercise jurisdiction in this case would be inappropriate.
Evans presents a scenerio factually similar to the case before me. In that case, the insurer filed a complaint in federal court shortly before commencement of trial in state court seeking a declaration that an exclusion in its policy pertained to the incident for which the insured was claiming coverage. The state court denied the insurer's motion to stay the action pending determination of the federal declaratory proceeding, and subsequently found in favor of the insured. Immediately thereafter, the district court granted the relief requested by the insurer, and the insured appealed. The Sixth Circuit vacated the district court's declaratory judgment and ordered dismissal, regarding "the case as an effort to play off the state and federal courts against each other and as a race for res judicata." Id.
Nationwide's efforts in this case parallel that of the insurer in Evans. After the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas had ordered the parties to submit to arbitration, Nationwide filed the instant action, no doubt anticipating that a decision in its favor in federal court might collaterally estop Flynn from relitigating the same issues before the state arbitration panel. When the arbitrators decided in Flynn's favor on the issue of coverage, Nationwide responded by filing a motion for summary judgment in federal court.
All of the claims raised in Nationwide's declaratory action were fully litigated before and decided by the state arbitration panel. Therefore, as to the first Evans criteria, a declaratory judgment by this court would not "settle" the controversy because the controversy has already been "settled" by the arbitrators. Further action by this court would serve no "useful purpose in clarifying the legal relations at issue" under the second Evans criterion since the legal relations between the parties were established in March of 1988 at the first arbitration hearing.
With respect to the third Evans criterion, it appears likely that the purpose of Nationwide's federal action was to engage the state arbitration system in a "race for res judicata." I can think of no other reason for Nationwide to seek declaratory relief with respect to those same issues pending in state court.
As to the fourth and fifth criterion, I have no doubt that the exercise of federal court jurisdiction in this matter would create unnecessary friction between the federal and state courts, especially now that each issue has been decided by state court arbitrators. If dissatisfied with the arbitrators' decision, Nationwide had an adequate and effective remedy in state court. Nationwide could have exercised its rights under section 7314 of the Pennsylvania Arbitration Act, 42 Pa.C.S.A. § 7301, et seq, and applied to the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas to vacate the award. The Federal Declaratory Judgment Act is not a substitute for judicial review in state court. See Travelers Ins. Co. v. Davis, 490 F.2d 536, 543 (3d Cir. 1974) ("'The object of the statute [the Federal Declaratory Judgment Act] is to afford a new form of relief where needed, not to furnish a new choice of tribunals or to draw into the federal courts the adjudication of causes properly cognizable by courts of the states.'") (quoting Aetna Casualty & Surety Co. v. Quarles, 92 F.2d 321, 324 (4th Cir. 1937)). Furthermore, Nationwide's state court remedy is consistent with and contemplated by the insurance policy at issue, which states that arbitrations are to be conducted in accordance with the Pennsylvania Arbitration Act. See supra note 2.
Having applied the procedural history of this case, as set forth in the pleadings, to the factors set forth in Evans, I decline to exercise jurisdiction over Nationwide's complaint, and will grant Flynn's motion to dismiss.
An order follows.
AND NOW, this 15th day of December, 1988, it is hereby ordered:
1. Plaintiff's motion for summary judgment is denied.
2. Defendant's motion to dismiss plaintiff's complaint is granted.