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May 23, 1988

United States of America
Local 30, United Slate, Tile And Composition Roofers, Damp And Waterproof Workers Association, Residential Reroofers Local 30B, United Slate, Tile and Composition Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers Association, Stephen Traitz, Jr., Edward P. Hurst, Michael Mangini, Robert Crosley, Michael Daly, Daniel Cannon, Mark Osborn, Robert Medina, Ernest Williams, James Nuzzi, Stephen Traitz, III, Joseph Traitz, and Richard Schoenberger

The opinion of the court was delivered by: BECHTLE

 LOUIS C. BECHTLE, United States District Judge

 Presently before the court is the motion of the United States for a preliminary injunction and appointment of a trustee pendente lite. For the reasons stated herein, the motion for a preliminary injunction will be granted to the extent set forth, and the motion for appointment of a trustee will be denied.


 On December 2, 1987, plaintiff United States of America ("United States" or "the government" or "plaintiff") filed a complaint and a motion for a preliminary injunction seeking appointment of a trustee pendente lite under the civil injunctive provisions of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1961-1968 ("RICO"). The United States also requests that defendants Stephen Traitz, Jr. ("Traitz"), Edward P. Hurst ("Hurst"), Michael Mangini, a/k/a "Nails" ("Mangini"), Robert Crosley ("Crosley"), Michael Daly ("Daly"), Daniel Cannon ("Cannon"), Mark Osborn ("Osborn"), Robert Medina ("Medina"), Ernest Williams ("Williams"), James Nuzzi ("Nuzzi"), Stephen Traitz, III ("Traitz III"), Joseph Traitz and Richard Schoenberger ("Schoenberger") be enjoined from holding office or participating directly or indirectly in the affairs of defendant Locals 30 and 30B, United Slate, Tile and Composition Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers Association and its affiliated benefit plans (hereinafter collectively referred to as "the Roofers Union" or "the Union") and for the court to appoint a trustee pendente lite to conduct the affairs of the Roofers Union.

 On November 23, 1987, a federal court jury in this district returned a verdict in a criminal action against the thirteen officers and employees of the Roofers Union who are named defendants in this civil action. The defendants were found guilty of conducting and participating in the affairs of the Roofers Union through a pattern of racketeering activity (substantive RICO offense), RICO conspiracy, bribery of federal, state and local public officials, mail fraud, extortion, illegal kickbacks from providers to an employee benefit plan, embezzlement from the employee benefit plan and collection of debts for organized crime.

 The parties introduced evidence at a preliminary injunction hearing that began on December 16, 1987 and continued with several breaks to completion on February 5, 1988. The parties were given until March 15, 1988 to submit final proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. On March 15, 1988 the court took the matter under advisement.

 Plaintiff presented its evidence in three parts: (1) the testimony of approximately fifty (50) fact witnesses who described improper and/or illegal acts allegedly committed by the individual defendants and/or the Union and/or members or supporters of the Union; (2) approximately eleven (11) of the audio tapes that were recorded in accordance with the Title III wiretap Order authorized in conjunction with the federal criminal trial of the individual defendants ( United States v. Traitz, et al., 646 F. Supp. 1086) (although the court received into evidence the entire set of 271 transcripts from the criminal proceeding); and, (3) the testimony of expert witness, law professor Clyde W. Summers. Plaintiff's evidence was received almost entirely without contradiction except for a few scattered episodes of primarily cosmetic and unrevealing cross-examination. Plaintiff's evidence thus stands virtually unchallenged.

 The thirteen individual defendants were collectively represented by Ronald Kidd, Esquire until February 1, 1988, when Edward Daly, Esquire took over the representation of his brother Michael Daly and Mr. Kidd continued to represent the other twelve individual defendants. The individual defendants presented the testimony of approximately one dozen witnesses and the stipulated testimony of two (2) other persons to vouch for the individual defendants' character and in regard to the extent of a possible injunction, their need to continue to be able to work as roofers in the geographic jurisdiction covered by the Union.

 The defendant Union presented the testimony of approximately nine (9) witnesses including expert witness, business school professor Janice R. Bellace, and the stipulated testimony of two (2) other persons. The Union's attorney, Bernard N. Katz, Esq., was replaced with the consent of the court and Mr. Katz, by Richard H. Markowitz, Esq. during the hearing.

 The United States contends that the convictions of the thirteen defendants in the criminal action, the evidence presented in this action and the expert testimony of Prof. Clyde W. Summers prove by a preponderance of the evidence that absent the injunctive relief requested including the removal of the current newly-elected officers of the Union and the imposition of a trusteeship, the persuasive and longstanding pattern of racketeering activity is likely to continue in the Roofers Union. *fn1" The thirteen individual defendants oppose the injunctive relief sought and in any event ask the court to allow them to be allowed to work as roofers in the geographic jurisdiction covered by the Union. Defendant Roofers Union opposes removal of the current officers of the Union and the imposition of a trusteeship. Defendant Roofers Union asks the court to deny all the injunctive relief plaintiff seeks and preserve the status quo or at most to impose some sort of limited monitorship whereby the current officers would continue to run the Union but would be monitored by a court-appointed official. For the reasons stated herein the court will not grant the relief plaintiff has requested, nor will it preserve the status quo as defendants request; instead it will grant what it considers to be the appropriate injunctive relief to protect the Union, its members and the public.


 A. Background

 1. The Roofers Union is a labor organization headquartered at 6447 Torresdale Avenue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that represents approximately 2,000 persons employed in eastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey and Delaware. At all times relevant to this action, the members of the Roofers Union have been employed in an enterprise affecting interstate commerce within the meaning of RICO, 18 U.S.C. § 1961; the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 ("LMRDA"), 29 U.S.C. §§ 401, et seq.; and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act ("ERISA"), 29 U.S.C. §§ 1001, et seq. [Govt. Exh. 21].

 2. The Roofers Union has, since at least the 1960's, negotiated collective bargaining agreements with two employer associations in the Philadelphia area. Local 30 (which has also been referred to by some as Local 30A), is the commercial roofing segment of the Union and has had an agreement with the Roofing and Sheet Metal Contractors Association of Philadelphia and Vicinity. Local 30B, the residential reroofing part of the Union, was formed in 1969 and has since that time had an agreement with the Roofing Metal and Heating Associates, a contractors' association. These agreements are re-negotiated approximately every three years, but terms other than wage and fringe benefit rates have remained essentially the same since the 1960's. [Exhs. D-11, D-12].

 3. The Roofers Union purports to be governed by the Constitution and Bylaws of the United Slate, Tile and Composition Roofers, Damp and Waterproof Workers Association, an international labor organization, and the Local 30/30B Constitution and Bylaws. [Govt. Exhs. 20A, 20B].

 4. The Constitution of the Roofers Union created the following offices:

Business Manager
Vice President
Recording Secretary
Five Executive Board Members

 The chief executive of the Union is the business manager. [Govt. Exh. 20B, p. 16].

 5. The Constitution and Bylaws of the Roofers Union provide that all officers are elected by and from the membership of Locals 30 and 30B. [Govt. Exh. 20B].

 6. There has not been a contested election (i.e., more than one candidate) for the office of business manager in at least the past twenty years, except during this suit in December 1987. [N.T. 1007].

 7. The Roofers Union also employs salaried business agents and organizers, who are appointed by the business manager. The duties of business agents and organizers include obtaining the agreement of non-Union roofing companies to become signatories to one of the industry-wide collective bargaining agreements; ensuring compliance with those agreements; and handling problems for members either in their employment or in relation to the Union benefit plans.

 8. The Roofers Union is associated with the following employee benefit plan funds that are subject to federal regulation:

(a) Local 30 Pension Fund
(b) Local 30B Pension Fund
(c) Local 30 Health and Welfare Fund
(d) Local 30B Health and Welfare Fund
(e) Local 30 Pre-Paid Legal Services Fund
(f) Local 30B Pre-Paid Legal Services Fund
(g) Local 30 Vacation Fund
(h) Local 30B Vacation Fund

 9. Officers of the Roofers Union sit on the boards of trustees of each of the funds identified above. An equal number of management trustees sit on each fund except for the two Vacation Funds, which are controlled solely by the Union.

 B. Union Violence Against Roofing Contractors To Coerce Unionization

 10. Beginning in approximately 1968, the leaders of the Roofers Union conceived a plan to govern and exploit the roofing industry in the Philadelphia area by forcing roofing companies to sign collective bargaining agreements with the Roofers Union and to operate their businesses in a manner that suited the Union leadership. The plan included use of physical coercion, violence, threats of violence, and terrorism to extort agreements from non-Union and Union contractors alike, and use of arson and violence to drive out of business any contractor who refused to submit to Roofers Union control. [Findings of Fact 10-56].

 11. The leaders of the Roofers Union and the sponsors of this policy at that time included William Stearn ("Stearn"), John McCullough ("McCullough"), Jack Kinkade, and Traitz. *fn2" Stearn was convicted in 1972 in this court of Hobbs Act extortion (18 U.S.C. § 1951), and was required to give up his Union office by virtue of 29 U.S.C. § 504. [Govt. Exhs. 21, 22A].

 12. In about 1968 or 1969, the Roofers Union hosted a meeting of approximately 100 contractors at the Rifle Club on Tabor Road in Philadelphia. Two of the contractors present were Richard Kaller, of Kaller Roofing Company, Ardmore, Pennsylvania, and Thomas Hudecheck, of Hudecheck Roofing, Downingtown, Pennsylvania, both of whom testified as witnesses for the government at the preliminary injunction hearing. [For a more detailed recitation of the Union interaction with the Kaller Roofing Company and Hudecheck Roofing, see Findings of Fact 24-34 and 75-78, infra, respectively.] At the Rifle Club meeting, McCullough and Traitz attempted to obtain the agreement of the approximately 100 contractors present to the industry-wide collective bargaining agreement for residential roofers. When certain contractors objected, McCullough stated, "Get that guy's name." The Union leaders of the meeting threatened the contractors that failure to agree would cause the Union to resort to physical retaliation against such contractors including stealing the contractors' ladders while workers were on a roof, breaking their equipment, burning their shops, and attacking them with baseball bats. Union officials made these threats over an open microphone to the approximately 100 contractors at the meeting. [N.T. 141-145, 297-99].

 13. During the months and years after the 1968 or 1969 Rifle Club meeting, the leadership of the Roofers Union carried out many of the threats made at that meeting, as part of official Union policy.

 Altemose Construction Company

 14. On June 5, 1972, the Roofers Union played a leading role in the unlawful intrusion and physical destruction of an Altemose Construction Company ("Altemose") jobsite at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. Altemose was a large non-Union builder. Traitz and other leaders of the Roofers Union arranged for the rental of seven buses that arrived in a caravan with other vehicles on the Valley Forge jobsite at 7:30 a.m. The vehicles discharged approximately 1,000 men, many of whom were officers or members of the Roofers Union, who proceeded to storm the jobsite and destroy virtually all property on the site. The destruction included leveling 4000 feet of cyclone fence; firebombing of an office building, a guard hut, and a construction trailer; destruction of a number of pieces of heavy construction equipment; overturning other vehicles, and preventing fire trucks from extinguishing the blazes started by the mob. Damage to Altemose equipment and property exceeded $ 300,000.00. [Govt. Exh. 7].

 15. Traitz and more than 100 others who he led were arrested on June 6, 1972 for refusal to comply with a state court injunction prohibiting picketing at the site. [Govt. Exh. 7].

 16. A number of Roofers Union members were arrested and charged with crimes by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in connection with the June 5, 1972 Altemose attack. Eleven members of the Union were convicted of various crimes and served prison terms. The Roofers Union used Union funds to pay for the legal criminal defense of the eleven members charged, and has made six annual payments to them during their term of incarceration and since their release from prison. The Union has also paid for and had installed at the Union Hall a plaque listing each of the eleven convicted roofers honoring them for their role in the Altemose matter. [N.T. 1256-1261].

 Kitson Brothers, Inc.

 17. Kitson Brothers, Inc. ("Kitson Bros.") is a non-Union commercial roofing contractor that has resisted the Roofers Union since 1972.

 19. Thereafter, on May 7, 1972, seven of Kitson Bros.' trucks were firebombed. Later that month, members of the Roofers Union beat two Kitson Bros. employees. [Govt. Exh. 7].

 20. From 1972 to 1979, Kitson Bros. endured threats, violence and vandalism on at least eight jobsites from a variety of Roofers Union agents and members, including Traitz (three times), Joseph Enright ("Enright"), Jack Kinkade, Brown, McCullough, Mangini (three times) and Michael Daly (two times). Union representatives threatened Kitson Bros. employees with death, attacked them with rocks, firecrackers, and clubs, and destroyed their vehicles and work. The Kitson Bros. business office building was defaced when it was sprayed in 1977 with an asphalt roofing material in a pattern that read "30-30-30," [Govt. Exh. 10F], a practice of vandalism repeated on a job Kitson Bros. was working at the time, and again two years later in 1979 on Kitson Bros. jobsites in Mount Laurel, New Jersey and northeast Philadelphia. Although the persons responsible for the vandalism have not been apprehended, the court finds from the weight of the evidence that some or all of the then leaders of the Roofers Union or their designees were responsible for this criminal conduct. [N.T. 529-577].

 21. From 1979 to 1982, the Roofers Union caused Kitson Bros. substantial vandalism on three additional jobsites. The damage occurred at night when the jobsites were vacant, and as a result no Union officials have been identified as responsible; however, the court finds that these incidents fit a deliberate pattern and policy of prior and subsequent vandalism, and that the Roofers Union was responsible. [N.T. 529-577].

 22. On May 9, 1985, defendant business agents Traitz, III and Schoenberger assaulted Kitson Bros. employee Peter Snow ("Snow") and damaged his truck on a jobsite, on the ground that Snow was a non-Union roofer who rebuffed their organizing pitch. When Snow filed assault charges in state court, he received threatening phone calls from members of the Roofers Union. At the preliminary hearing, Joseph Traitz, Traitz, Traitz III and Schoenberger appeared and tried to intimidate Snow by staring him down and bumping him on the shoulder whenever they walked by. Kitson Bros. filed unfair labor practice charges with the NLRB on behalf of Snow, resulting in a $ 50,000.00 contempt of court fine against the Roofers Union. [N.T. 577-588, 1255-1256].

 23. The effect of the Roofers Union's campaign of violence, terrorism and vandalism on Kitson Bros. has been to terrorize Kitson Bros.' employees and to increase Kitson Bros.' costs by making retention of employees difficult and by making jobsite security expensive. [N.T. 555-556].

 Kaller Roofing Company

 24. Richard A. Kaller, a non-Union contractor, runs three roofing companies: R. Kaller and Sons, J. A. Miller and H. L. Smith. The three companies employ about 50 people and operate out of the Philadelphia suburbs. Approximately 60% of their work is residential and 40% is commercial. [N.T. 140].

 25. Richard Kaller attended the 1968 or 1969 Rifle Club meeting where Traitz explained the plan for organizing residential roofers. [N.T. 141-143]. In the early 1970's and the ensuing ten years, Traitz had several conversations with Richard Kaller, with the intent of threatening Richard Kaller in order to get him to have his companies join the Union or to get out of the roofing business. Through these conversations Traitz made the threat: "You'll find yourself in the hospital if you are not careful." [N.T. 146-147].

 26. On a morning in or about 1976 Richard Kaller was on a shingle roofing job at Seamen's Church in Center City, Philadelphia. Two cars of men, including Enright, identifying themselves as Union officials of Local 30, arrived at the jobsite. Enright threatened Tom Kirby, the job foreman, with injury for refusing to join the Roofers Union. [N.T. 148-156].

 27. In or about 1978 at McGowan Ford, a jobsite in West Chester, Pennsylvania, Richard Kaller's crew was threatened by three men who drove to the jobsite in a truck with a Local 30B sticker on it. *fn3" The driver of the truck threatened, "You scabs better get out of here. If your equipment is here tonight, it will be wrecked. If we see you on the job, we'll beat you up." [N.T. 159-161].

 28. In late 1979, Richard Kaller began a large commercial roofing job at Sutton Terrace, a condominium complex in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. The Roofers Union undertook a campaign of terror and intimidation to force Richard Kaller to withdraw from the job unless he signed a Roofers Union contract. Richard Kaller's subcontractor, Jack Spears ("Spears"), even though he was a Local 30B signatory, was unable to complete his job for Richard Kaller at Sutton Terrace due to pressure from Traitz. [N.T. 164-167].

 29. Richard Kaller phoned Traitz to discuss why Spears was thrown off the job. Traitz told him that he wanted Richard Kaller out of the roofing business and Richard Kaller should talk to Francis "Franny" McCullough, the Roofers Union business agent for the area. [N.T. 168].

 30. Shortly thereafter, Francis McCullough, Jack Kinkade, Joseph Kinkade, Traitz and others in a group of ten arrived unannounced early in the morning at the Sutton Terrace jobsite while Richard Kaller was there to supervise the lifting of a tar kettle to the roof. [N.T. 170-171]. The kettle was being lifted to the roof to protect the kettleman from Union violence because he would otherwise be left on the ground while the rest of the crew was up on the roof. When the kettle was being lifted Francis McCullough said in the presence of his nine Union confederates that he was going to beat up Richard Kaller and put him in the hospital. In addition, a group of Union men had a brief discussion in front of Richard Kaller about who should beat him up. [N.T. 171-173].

 31. A few days thereafter, Richard Kaller met with Union representative Jack Kinkade in the Sutton Terrace parking lot. Jack Kinkade had a handgun laying on the seat between him and Richard Kaller. Jack Kinkade, in an effort to intimidate and threaten Richard Kaller, told him that the situation did not have to turn into gunplay. Richard Kaller left that meeting thinking that he was going to quit the roofing business and believed he was on his way to the hospital. [N.T. 177-178].

 32. After several more weeks of similar threats on the jobsite, Richard Kaller, at the urging of the condominium developer, went with the developer's representative to a meeting at the Union Hall. At that meeting Richard Kaller agreed to put four of his employees into Local 30 and to accept Local 30 men on the Sutton Terrace jobsite. [N.T. 179-185]. After these people began work for Kaller, the roofers supplied by the Union sabotaged and further disrupted the job and Kaller's equipment, and continued to threaten Kaller with physical harm for perceived infractions of the Union rules. [N.T. 185-190]. In this atmosphere the job ended in early 1980. [N.T. 195].

 34. Shortly thereafter, in the beginning of 1986, when Curtis Kaller was nearing completion of this same Trinity Church job, the windows of his four roofing vehicles in the parking lot of his shop were shattered. The vandals were not caught. No other vehicles present were smashed and Curtis Kaller knew of no one else who would do such vandalism to him. [N.T. 240-241]. These circumstances easily lead the court to the conclusion that the Roofers Union, through its agents, was responsible.

 I. Alper Company

 35. I. Alper Company ("Alper"), is a non-Union roofing company located in Camden, New Jersey. The Alper family and Alper employees have been victims of Roofers Union violence and destruction since the 1960's, all in an effort to force the company to sign a Union agreement and become a Union contractor. For about 20 years between 1960-1980 on many occasions, Union business agents destroyed roofs where Alper was working, and instructed Union members to slash tires on Alper's vehicles. [Govt. Exh. 16-T-5].

 36. In May 1985, Union business agents Joseph Kinkade and McBride offered to end Roofers Union-sponsored vehicle and jobsite vandalism, as well as any troubles Alper might have with other labor unions, if William and Hyman Alper, the company owners, would sign a Local 30 collective bargaining agreement. The Alpers declined. [Govt. Exh. 16-T-5].

 37. Steven Alper was job foreman at a roofing job on a pharmacy in Margate, New Jersey on May 15, 1980. He was approached on that jobsite by Roofers Union business agent Daly and another man. Daly told him to stop the job or "there is going to be an awful lot of trouble. . . ." [N.T. 112-115].

 38. The next day, May 16, 1980, Steven Alper was foreman on the roof on a job at Crane Plumbing in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Daly and five other men stole an Alper dump truck and burned it. [N.T. 115-120].

 39. Craig Alper, Steven Alper's cousin, has been with I. Alper Company for 16 years. Craig Alper was at a roofing job in late summer of 1971 at the Pennsauken Industrial Center when three Local 30 men with bats walked up and said: "This is a union job, and you are a nonunion contractor. You can't be working here. Get the fuck out of here or we'll beat the shit out of you." [N.T. 1172-1174].

 40. Other instances of harassment and/or physical damage by the Roofers Union against the Alper companies include occurrences at the following jobsites: Hancock School in Lansdale, Pennsylvania (Summer 1981 - business agent Brown); AMTRAK 30th Street Station (Summer 1982 - $ 200,000.00 damage); Greenberg School in Northeast Philadelphia (Summer 1983); Martin Luther King High School (Summer 1983 - $ 80,000.00 damage); Martin Luther King High School (Summer 1984 - ladder pulled away from roof and truck firebombed). [N.T. 1175-1197].

 41. In 1985, on the Fels Junior High School ("Fels") job by Alper, Traitz was the impetus behind the Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") conducting an unwarranted safety inspection. [N.T. 120-122]. Both Traitz and his accomplice, OSHA Area Director Bernard Dillon, have been convicted of bribery and corruption for actions that occurred shortly after the inspection of the Fels job, and the court concludes in this civil case that the corrupt relationship extended to the unwarranted 1985 Fels inspection by OSHA as well. [Govt. Exh. 4B, 4C].

 42. Steven Kurtz ("Kurtz"), another victim of Roofers Union violence, began business as a roofing contractor in 1970. Two or three years later in 1972 or 1973 he voluntarily approached the Roofers Union to discuss unionizing his company, which then consisted of about three employees. [N.T. 456]. After those discussions, he decided not to do so. Shortly after Kurtz's visit to the Union Hall, business agents Brown and Williams came to his house, and during a brief discussion there, threatened that they might burn the house down. [N.T. 457]. Kurtz had no significant involvement with the Union from 1973 to the spring of 1983. In 1983, Union agents or members vandalized a roof Kurtz was installing and stole two tar kettles owned by Kurtz's company. After each incident, Kurtz received a late night anonymous threatening phone call about the roofing equipment damage and thefts. [N.T. 459-462].

 43. By this time, the Kurtz business had expanded to about twenty employees, and performed an occasional commercial roofing job. In early 1983, the Kurtz company was removed from a commercial roofing job in Manayunk, Pennsylvania, that was one-half completed because the owner of the building wanted to finish the job with a Union company. [N.T. 463-464].

 44. Soon after this removal, Union business agents Joseph Kinkade and McBride visited Kurtz's office in Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, to attempt to Union organize his company. Traitz and Medina arrived at Kurtz's office shortly thereafter. Kurtz told these four Union agents that he was willing to join the Union if the men wanted to join the Union. He arranged for business agents to meet privately with his employees to discuss joining the Union. After meeting with Kurtz's employees, business agent Joseph Kinkade told Kurtz that the Union had been unable to generate sufficient support among the employees to win a representation election. He asked Kurtz to sign a collective bargaining agreement notwithstanding the opposition of his employees. Kurtz refused. [N.T. 464-467].

 45. Kurtz then experienced a period of almost two years during which his contacts with the Union were minimal. His workforce grew to about 30 men. This period of tranquility was broken on May 8, 1985 when two unidentified men attacked Kurtz as he got out of his jeep at his shop at about 6:30 a.m. The men beat and kicked Kurtz in the head and ribs repeatedly, severely bruising his face and cracking three ribs. [Govt. Exh. 14]. During the attack, Kurtz asked his attackers "why," to which one of them responded: "Because you won't join the union." [N.T. 467-470].

 46. The following night, May 9, 1985, at approximately 10:00 or 11:00 P.M., a telephone caller identifying himself only as "Billy" said: "Steven, I just want you to know that this is only the beginning." He also called Kurtz a "scab." Kurtz signed an agreement with the Roofers Union during the summer of 1985. [N.T. 473-474].

 D & D Roofing, Inc.

 47. Douglas Dardaris ("Dardaris"), a roofing contractor doing business as D & D Roofing, signed a Local 30B agreement in 1979 after Traitz, Joseph Traitz and several other Roofers Union agents and members assaulted him in front of his employees on a jobsite, breaking several ribs. The Union had earlier defaced a Roy Rogers building for which Dardaris had done roofing work by pouring liquid asphalt roofing material on the building. He was required to post a $ 500.00 cash "bond" to "join" the Union, which has not been returned. When the individual defendants were indicted, Dardaris withdrew from the Union. During the seven years of their membership, his employees never received any Roofers Union cards. [N.T. 622-647].

 Small Roofing Contractors

 48. The campaign of violence, fear and terrorism sponsored and carried out by the Roofers Union leadership to coerce companies into dealing with the Union impacted upon many very small contractors as well as the larger employers discussed above.

 50. In October 1985, out of fear that he would be beaten again, Kolosenko acquiesced to the demands of Roofers Union business agents Medina and Schoenberger that he pay to the Union "dues" payments equivalent to 100 hours per month ($ 60.00) regardless of whether he worked those hours ("the 100-hour policy"). [N.T. 27-29].

 51. In the summer of 1987, after Kolosenko quit the Union, persons believed to be Local 30/30B agents, together with a Bruce Reas ("Reas"), threatened him with physical harm in front of his daughter while he was working on the rooftop of a job as a non-Union contractor in his own neighborhood. Kolosenko was asked by a man wearing a Roofers Union jacket and hat if he was a Union member. He answered "no." The man left and returned with Reas and a third man. Reas asked the third man to bring him a hatchet. Reas attempted to climb the ladder, hatchet in hand, but Kolosenko kept shaking it. Around the same time, the Roofers Union also sabotaged his truck by cutting tires 21 times and removing the nuts from the bolts that hold the front spring together. [N.T. 27-35].

 52. Ronald Wanner was a summer employee of his father's roofing business in August, 1975 when Roofers Union business agent Daly and another large man threatened him and beat him up because he was doing a small commercial job without being a Union member. The assault left Ronald Wanner with various injuries, including a cracked nose and a black eye. [N.T. 397-405, 407-408]. In 1974 and 1975 Daly threatened John Wanner, Ronald's father, with trouble and damage. [N.T. 413-419]. Daly said: "Well, you better become union or something could happen to your truck. It would be a shame if something happened to your truck." [N.T. 414]. At a job for Rittenhouse Freight Company, he told John Wanner: "You better just clear out of hear [sic] and leave these jobs alone, because you are going to get into trouble." [N.T. 415]. After the attack on his son, John Wanner began to carry a gun on the job. Eventually he virtually withdrew from roofing work because of fear of the Union. [N.T. 420].

 53. William Unangst ("Unangst") was a temporary non-Union employee of Mynar Roofing on December 28, 1982, when he was viciously assaulted outside a bar at night by Traitz III, Joseph Traitz, Schoenberger, Robert Hammond ("Hammond") and fellow Mynar employee David Nestor. Hammond, a member of the Union, was a close friend of the Traitz family who frequently participated in assaults on behalf of the Roofers Union. During the December 28th attack, the assailants tore Unangst's ear half off, cut his face, punctured his eardrum and injured his ribs. They also assaulted and knocked unconscious Joe Salvino ("Salvino"), a friend of Unangst who tried to help him. The attack occurred because Unangst was not a member of the Roofers Union. [N.T. 421-432; Govt. Exh. 11C].

 54. Within a week after Unangst and Salvino filed criminal charges in state court against those members of the Union, Traitz called them to a meeting at the Montgomery County Boys Club, where Traitz was involved as a boxing trainer. Present were Traitz, Unangst and Salvino, the co-owners of Mynar, and McBride. The atmosphere was threatening and intimidating to Unangst and Salvino. Traitz threatened Unangst and Salvino. He threatened that Unangst's friends would be out of work, and intimidated the two into dropping the criminal charges. After the incident, Mynar gave Unangst less and less work, and eventually Unangst quit. His fear of the Union continues to the present. [N.T. 432-439].

 55. Hans Martin Glang ("Glang") is a German immigrant who came to the United States in 1982, and began operating as a small non-Union roofing company in the Philadelphia area in 1983. During the fall of 1984 two Roofers Union business agents, one of whom visibly carried a gun, visited Glang on a jobsite at the Abington Pharmacy, leaving a business card to call Traitz. They urged him to join the Union. In a later telephone conversation Traitz also urged Glang to join the Union. Glang refused, and took steps to avoid the Union by moving his location and changing his phone number. [N.T. 886-892, 902].

 56. During this period, Glang also held a part-time job as a doorman at an American Legion Post in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. On the night of January 5, 1985, Traitz, Schoenberger, and at least eight other Roofers Union agents and members approached the door of the bar/club and asked for Glang. He appeared at the door and went outside to meet with the group of roofers. Without provocation, Traitz pulled Glang by the hair and knocked him down. A brawl ensued between the eight or so Roofers Union members and a group of doormen who came to Glang's aid. Glang's hand was broken in the fight, which lasted about thirty minutes before police intervened. After this assault, Glang gave up his roofing business. [N.T. 893-899, 908, 912, 917].

  C. Sabotage And Vandalism Against Non-Union Contractors

  57. In addition to resorting to face-to-face violence against persons and property, the Roofers Union program, to achieve its goals and demands, has also included clandestine vandalism and sabotage often coupled with threats of violence.

  58. In the case of non-Union roofer George Geyer ("Geyer"), for example, the Roofers Union relied exclusively on sabotage of Geyer's vehicles, extensive vandalism to a roof, theft of equipment, and a threat that "There is no way you are going to do that job as a non-union contractor" from business agent Joseph Kinkade. After several such experiences, Geyer agreed to sign a collective bargaining agreement in the summer of 1985. [N.T. 774-776, 788-794].

  59. James L. Miller ("Miller") of Schuylkill Haven, Pennsylvania, a non-Union contractor, bid on a school job near Reading, Berks County, Pennsylvania, in June of 1985. The day after Miller won the bid, Union business agent Phillip Cimini ("Cimini") called him and made an appointment for a meeting regarding the job. Shortly thereafter, Cimini visited Miller's shop and tried to secure his consent to sign a Roofers Union agreement. At the end of a half-hour discussion that had been amicable in tone, Cimini told Miller: "Either you join or we'll get you." [N.T. 736-743].

  60. About halfway through the school job that had precipitated Cimini's organizing efforts, the jobsite was vandalized; holes had been torn in the roof; and Miller's equipment had been damaged. This background, coupled with the fact that roofers' tools were required to tear such holes in the roof and Miller left no such tools at the jobsite, causes the court to draw the reasonable inference that the Union was responsible for this vandalism. The total damage exceeded $ 80,000.00, and the insurance claim eventually caused Miller to lose insurance coverage for his business. As a result, Miller stopped doing business in the territory covered by the Roofers Union. [N.T. 744-751].

  62. In the summer of 1986, J.J. Urethane again hired Roof-Vac as a subcontractor, this time on a job on Delaware Avenue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Roofers Union business agent Williams demanded that for the duration of the job Roof-Vac employees join the ...

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