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decided: May 20, 1988.


Application for Restoration of Injunction Pending Appeal. Emergency Hearing and Oral Argument Requested. Nix, C.j., and Larsen, Flaherty, McDermott, Zappala and Papadakos, JJ. Stout, J., did not participate in the consideration or decision of this case.

Author: Flaherty

[ 518 Pa. Page 212]


On February 28, 1984 the Insurance Adjustment Bureau (the Bureau), a partnership engaged in the business of negotiating casualty loss claims on behalf of insured property owners, filed a complaint in equity addressed to the original jurisdiction of Commonwealth Court seeking, inter alia, a preliminary injunction enjoining the implementation of an amendment to the Public Adjuster and Public Adjuster Solicitor law, Act of December 20, 1983, P.L. 260, No. 72, 63 P.S. § 1601-1608. The amendment, in pertinent part, provides:

No public adjuster or public adjuster solicitor shall solicit a client for employment within twenty-four hours of a fire or other catastrophe or other occurrence which is the basis of the solicitation. With respect to a fire, the 24-hour period shall begin at such time as the fire department in charge determines that the fire is extinguished.

63 P.S. § 1605(a). The Bureau's claim was that this portion of the amendment infringed upon its rights and its customers' rights to freedom of speech, due process, and equal protection under the Pennsylvania and the United States Constitutions.

Commonwealth Court conducted a hearing on April 26, 1984 and granted the Bureau's Motion for Preliminary Injunction. On December 20, 1984 Commonwealth Court overruled preliminary objections filed by the Commonwealth and directed the Commonwealth to answer the complaint and petition. The Bureau then filed a motion for summary judgment, and on August 13, 1987, after a hearing, a three judge panel of Commonwealth Court denied the Bureau's motion for summary judgment, dissolved the preliminary injunction, dismissed the complaint and granted summary judgment in favor of the Commonwealth, 530 A.2d 132. The Bureau's petition for reargument and application

[ 518 Pa. Page 213]

    for injunction pending appeal were denied and on September 10, 1987, the Bureau appealed to this Court from the judgment of Commonwealth Court.*fn1

The Bureau now asserts that the statute's twenty-four hour ban on solicitation impermissibly restricts freedom of speech; that it violates the Bureau's right to equal protection of the law, that it is an unlawful exercise of the police power and an unlawful special law under the Pennsylvania Constitution designed to benefit a special interest; and that the statute is excessively vague in violation of the Bureau's due process right to receive notice of prohibited conduct.


The statute defines "public adjuster" as a person or entity who adjusts loss claims on behalf of an insured, and "public adjustor solicitor" as a person who solicits contracts for public adjusting services. 63 P.S. § 1601. The Bureau claims that insured property owners, following a loss, often fail to take necessary steps to protect their property and receive a prompt and fair claim settlement. An insured may be emotionally distraught, he may be too busy or otherwise committed, or he may not have the ability or understanding necessary to process his own claim. In any event, public adjusters typically arrange emergency protection of damaged property, secure temporary lodging for displaced persons, advise insureds regarding their rights and duties under their insurance contracts, consult with insurance companies, and commence inventory and appraisal of the loss.

The twenty-four hour restriction is significant to public adjusters and public adjuster solicitors because, prior to the amendment, they routinely approached property owners

[ 518 Pa. Page 214]

    within hours of a disaster, explaining their services, and, if a contract was signed, beginning work. They assert that contacting the victims of a disaster within twenty-four hours of the disaster is often necessary in order to locate the property owner before he moves to an unlisted, temporary location because of the disaster.

The Commonwealth, on the other hand, claims that the statute prohibiting solicitation of business by public adjusters or public adjuster solicitors within twenty-four hours of a disaster or fire is permissible, in part, because it is only a time, place and manner regulation. Additionally, the Commonwealth argues that if public adjusters and public adjuster solicitors are allowed to solicit business within twenty-four hours of a disaster they may utilize fraudulent practices at a time when victims of disaster are especially vulnerable, and they might, in the course of pursuing their commercial interests, destroy evidence or otherwise impede a criminal investigation.

The Bureau, however, argues that the public is adequately protected by licensing requirements and by various sanctions which may be imposed against members of the insurance adjustment industry. Public adjusters and public adjuster solicitors are licensed by the Commonwealth, subject to revocation or suspension of their license, and bonded. They may not conduct business without a signed, written contract, and the form of the contract must be approved by the Insurance Commissioner. The statute requires that any contract secured by a public adjuster or public adjuster solicitor may be rescinded within four days of signing, and there are civil and criminal penalties for violation of any provision of the act, including provisions of the act which prohibit, inter alia, misrepresentation, misappropriation of money, or fraudulent practices. 63 P.S. §§ 1603-1608.


Because we agree with the Bureau that the portion of the statute about which they complain impermissibly burdens their right of free speech, we do not address the other

[ 518 Pa. Page 215]

    issues raised, but confine our discussion to the aspect of the case concerning the freedom of speech.

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution provides, in pertinent part:

Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or ...

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