On Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, D.C. Civil No. 87-1875.
Higginbotham, Stapleton, and Greenberg, Circuit Judges.
GREENBERG, Circuit Judge.
This matter before the court on appeal from an order of the district court entered September 8, 1987 in a bankruptcy case presents the question of whether the automatic stay provisions of 11 U.S.C. § 362 should be lifted so that the government may terminate a contract entered into with a defense contractor before it sought relief under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. The facts germane to the disposition of this appeal are not in dispute and thus our review is of legal precepts and is plenary. United States v. Adams, 759 F.2d 1099, 1106 (3d Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 906, 971, 106 S. Ct. 275, 336, 88 L. Ed. 2d 236 (1985). For the reasons stated below, we hold that the automatic stay should have been lifted so that the contract could be terminated.
In 1986 the United States entered into a contract with West Electronics, Inc., under which West was to supply a substantial number of AIM-9 missile launcher power supply units to the Air Force. While West expected this contract to be very profitable, it contends that its ability to perform was impaired by the government's failure to make inspectors available. Nevertheless, West did from time to time receive progress payments under the contract.
In October 1986 West suffered a computer malfunction which destroyed its accounting records, a misfortune which it does not attribute to the government. On November 14, 1986 the government suspended progress payments on the contract pending a review of West's financial status. At that time West had not made its first deliveries under the contract, though it asserts that in late November its first delivery of 60 units passed final inspection. West indicates that the suspension of the progress payments compelled it to deliver some of the power units to another customer willing to pay cash immediately.
The government's review revealed what it considered to be serious irregularities in West's accounting procedures. Overall the contracting officer concluded that because of West's delinquency in delivering the power supply units, the failure of its accounting systems, its delinquency in paying costs attributable to the contract and the excess of unliquidated progress payments to work in progress, the contract should be suspended.
On December 9, 1986 the government served an administrative notice on West requiring it to show cause why the contract should not be terminated. West responded on December 19, 1986 by explaining the impact of the limited availability of government inspectors. On December 18, 1986 the Internal Revenue Service seized West's assets to satisfy a lien of $779,449.40.
On December 19, 1986 West filed a petition for relief under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code and became a debtor in possession. At that time it obtained an order from the bankruptcy court temporarily restraining the Internal Revenue Service from seizing or removing property from its premises. At a subsequent hearing a consent order was entered which permitted West to regain possession of its premises. Of course, the automatic stay provisions of 11 U.S.C. § 362 were triggered when the petition was filed.
On January 9, 1987 West moved in the bankruptcy court for an order compelling the government to make progress payments on the contract. On February 5, 1987 the government filed a cross-motion seeking an order permitting it to terminate the contract either by the court lifting the automatic stay or in some other appropriate manner. In addition, the government sought an order permitting it to take absolute possession of the parts and work in progress identifiable to the contract.
The bankruptcy judge denied both motions as premature. The judge concluded that he should not compel progress payments until West had first applied for the payments in accordance with the terms of the contract. The judge also indicated that West had the capacity to cure the default and should be given the opportunity to establish it could perform. The judge further ruled that there were no exigent circumstances arising from national defense considerations requiring lifting of the stay. An order reflecting this decision was entered April 9, 1987. The government appealed to the district court. The district judge in a memorandum opinion dated July 20, 1987 affirmed the bankruptcy judge's order. He reasoned that the contract, while executory could be assumed by West and that because West represented that it had the ...