Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, D.C. Civil No. 87-1995.
Gibbons, Chief Judge, Weis and Greenberg, Circuit Judges.
This case comes to us in the guise of an alleged copyright infringement but, in reality, is an attempt by a domestic manufacturer to prevent the importation of its own products by the "gray market." We conclude that, having sold its goods with copyrighted labels to foreign distributors, the manufacturer is barred by the first sale doctrine from establishing infringement through in unauthorized importation. Consequently, we will vacate a preliminary injunction enjoining defendants from distributing within the United States, products that plaintiff had manufactured in this country and then exported.
Plaintiff, Sebastian International, is a California corporation which manufactures and markets personal care beauty supplies. The two items at issue here, WET and SHPRITZ FORTE, carry copyrights for the text and artistic content of their labels. Sebastian maintains that its marketing policy restricts retail sales to professional salons. This strategy is designed to establish Sebastian's image, enhance its reputation, and foster its commercial success.
In 1986, Sebastian entered into an oral contract with defendant Consumer Contacts (PTY), Ltd. d/b/a 3-D Marketing Services, in which 3-D agreed to distribute Sebastian beauty products to professional hair styling salons in South Africa, but not elsewhere. Sebastian shipped four containers of WET, SHPRITZ FORTE and other products valued at approximately $200,000 to 3-D in Edenvale, South Africa in January 1987. 3-D then reshipped the unopened containers back to the United States where customs released them on May 14, 1987.
One week later, Sebastian, alleging breach of contract, sought a preliminary injunction against distribution of the products in the United States. The district court granted a temporary restraining order and scheduled a hearing. Later Sebastian amended its complaint to allege that defendant Fabric, Ltd. had possession of the products, and that the copyrights on WET and SHPRITZ Forte labels were being infringed.
When it became evident that Fabric had not known of the contractual limitations between Sebastian and 3-D, the district court lifted its initial restraining order. The court concluded, however, that the two Sebastian labels came within the purview of the Copyright Act and issued a preliminary injunction against infringement.
As the district court read the pertinent provisions of the Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. §§ 106(3), 109(a), 602(a), the copyright holder has a right to control importation of copies, regardless of where they were made and despite the occurrence of a "first sale." After surveying the limited case law and the legislative history, the court understood the 1976 Act to create two types of distribution rights for copies; one tied to the act of vending and the other to the act of importation. In the court's view, vending was limited by the first sale doctrine; importation was not. Thus, Sebastian's right to control importation was "not extinguished when those goods were first sold regardless of where plaintiff's products were first sold or first manufactured." Sebastian Int'l., Inc. v. Consumer Contacts (PTY) Ltd., 664 F. Supp. 909, 920 (D.N.J. 1987).
Defendants appeal the issuance of the preliminary injunction and present two issues for review. First, they contend that Sebastian did not demonstrate irreparable harm. Second, they argue that the first sale doctrine extinguishes the claim for copyright infringement. Defendants do not presently challenge the district court's determination that the labels had valid copyrights, having reserved that issue in the district court until the hearing on the permanent injunction. Consequently, that issue is not before us and in view of our disposition of this case, we do not discuss the irreparable injury aspect.
The Copyright Act is based on article I, section 8 of the United States Constitution, which grants Congress power to "Promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries." These monopoly privileges are "neither unlimited nor primarily designed to provide a special private benefit." Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417, 429, 78 L. Ed. 2d 574, 104 S. Ct. 774 (1984). Instead, they promote an important public purpose by encouraging the creative activity of authors and by allowing public access to "the products of their genius after the limited period of exclusive control has expired." Id.
The copyright statutes have been amended repeatedly in an attempt to balance the authors' interest in the control and exploitation of their writings with society's competing stake in the free flow of ideas, information and commerce. Id. Ultimately, the copyright law regards financial reward to the owner as a secondary consideration.
The Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101-810 (1982) (repealing Copyright Act of 1909, ch. 320, § 41, 35 Stat. 1075), contains three sections relevant to the issues ...