the FELA, intended to subject a state to suit under the circumstances presented. After reviewing the terms and purposes of the FELA, the Court concluded that indeed Congress had intended to allow states to be sued under the FELA's liability provisions. The case ultimately turned on the determination that the state, by engaging itself in the railroad business for profit, had entered into an area normally occupied by private persons and corporations. It had therefore consented to be subject to the federal regulations applicable to the railroad industry and had waived its sovereign immunity from a suit under the FELA.
The Parden decision was subsequently limited in Employees v. Missouri Public Health Dept., 411 U.S. 279, 36 L. Ed. 2d 251, 93 S. Ct. 1614 (1973), a case filed against administrative departments of the State of Missouri by state employees seeking overtime compensation allegedly due them under the Fair Labor Standards Act ("FLSA"), 29 U.S.C. § 216(b). Despite express language in the Act that its coverage extended to certain state employees, the Court refused to find that Congress had lifted the sovereign immunity of the states "where the purpose of Congress to give force to the Supremacy Clause by lifting the sovereignty of the States and putting the States on the same footing as other employers is not clear." Id. 411 U.S. at 287.
After reviewing the pertinent legislative history of the FLSA the Court concluded that if Congress intended to deprive the states of their constitutional immunity, it would not have done so silently. Since there was no "clear language" in either the statute itself or its legislative history which would indicate that the states' constitutional immunity was swept away, the Court ruled that the Eleventh Amendment barred the employees' suits against their state employer. 411 U.S. at 285.
In Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S. 651, 39 L. Ed. 2d 662, 94 S. Ct. 1347 (1974), the Court reversed the Seventh Circuit's holding that a state, by participating in a federal-state aid program governed by federal regulations, had "constructively consented" to a citizen's suit related to the state's administration of that program. The Edelman Court reiterated that in considering a claim of surrender of Eleventh Amendment immunity in the face of federal legislation, "we will find waiver only where stated 'by the most express language or by such overwhelming implications from the text as [will] leave no room for any other reasonable construction.'" Id. 415 U.S. at 673 (citations omitted).
Congressional awareness and compliance with the Supreme Court decisions setting out the clear statement rule cannot be disputed. Congress has, through clear statutory language and legislative intent, enacted a number of laws effectively abrogating a state's immunity in federal court. See, e.g., Parks v. Pavkovic, 536 F. Supp. 296, 309 (N.D. Ill. 1982)(Education for All Handicap Children Act of 1975 specifically intended to impose liability on states for certain education costs); Oneida Indian Nation of Wisconsin v. State of New York, 520 F. Supp. 1278, 1305 (N.D. N.Y. 1981) (intent to abrogate state immunity inferred from congressional intent, statutory language and special relationship between the Indian tribe and federal government); modified on other grounds, 691 F.2d 1070 (2d Cir. 1982); Witter v. Pennsylvania Nat'l Guard, 462 F. Supp. 299, 306 (E.D. Pa. 1978) (Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Act is an express authorization of federal suits against a state for back pay). Abrogation of immunity in these cases was premised on a finding that in enacting the particular legislation at issue, Congress clearly expressed its intent to allow states to be sued. Compare Savage v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 475 F. Supp. 524, 529 (E.D. Pa. 1979) (Civil Rights Act of 1871 not intended by Congress to abrogate a state's immunity (citing Quern v. Jordan, 440 U.S. 332, 59 L. Ed. 2d 358, 99 S. Ct. 1139 (1979)); Municipal Authority of Bloomsburg v. Dept. of Environmental Resources, 496 F. Supp. 686, 689 (M.D. Pa. 1980)(Federal Water Pollution Control Act amendments did not abrogate the states' immunity); Stubbs v. Kline, 463 F. Supp. 110, 116 (W.D. Pa. 1978) (Rehabilitation Act of 1973 did not contain the requisite congressional intent to abrogate a state's Eleventh Amendment immunity).
Applying the clear statement rule to the facts of the present case indicates that allowance of the claim against the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania depends on a finding that Congress expressly intended to abrogate a state's sovereign immunity.
A review of the statutory provisions and legislative history of CERCLA, however, reveals that there is no clear statement of such an intent in CERCLA.
Turning to the actual statutory provisions themselves, the court finds nothing to indicate that Congress intended to allow states to be sued by private citizens under CERCLA. Union Gas's assertion that Congress did intend to lift the states' sovereign immunity centers upon language in Section 9607 that any "person" responsible for illegal toxic waste dumping is liable to other "persons" for costs incurred in the clean-up operation.
Section 9601(21) defines a person, for purposes of CERCLA, as "an individual, firm, corporation, association, partnership, consortium, joint venture, commercial entity, United States Government, State, municipality, commission, political subdivision of a state, or any interstate body."
Union Gas argues that, since a "person" includes a state within the meaning of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. § 9601(21), a state would be liable to a private litigant under § 9607. This court cannot agree. A similar argument concerning the Fair Labor Standards Act ("FLSA") was suggested by plaintiffs and rejected by the Court in Employees v. Missouri Public Health Dept., supra, 411 U.S. 279. In Employees, the term "employers," within the meaning of FLSA, included state-run health institutions. The Supreme Court found, however, that despite this inclusion, there was no indication of a congressional purpose to permit a citizen to sue the state in federal court. 411 U.S. at 285. The Court refused to imply such a purpose merely because the statute defined "employers" so as to include a particular state-run institution. In view of Employees, Union Gas's argument as to the combined effect of Sections 9607 and 9601(21) of CERCLA must be rejected. Any congressional waiver in CERCLA of the states' Eleventh Amendment immunity from suit must therefore be found in the statute's legislative history.
A review of the legislative background of CERCLA, however, reveals nothing to support a finding that Congress clearly expressed an intent to abrogate a state's immunity from liability. Neither the House nor the Senate reports indicated an intent to include a governmental entity as a defendant in an action brought by a private party. The Senate debates, however, made numerous references to private companies potentially liable under CERCLA. During one of these debates, it was expressly stated that a specific purpose of the CERCLA or "Superfund" liability provisions is to "provide that the fund be financed largely by those industries and consumers who profit from products and services associated with the hazardous substances which impose risks on society." 126 Cong. Rec. S14963-64 (daily ed. Nov. 24, 1980) (statement of Sen. Randolph) (emphasis added). The Senate debates further emphasized that "issues of liability not resolved by this act, if any, shall be governed by traditional and evolving principles of common law." 126 Cong. Rec. at S14964. This court reads this last statement to include the common law doctrine of sovereign immunity embodied in the Eleventh Amendment.
In sum, since neither the statutory provisions nor the legislative history of CERCLA reveals the requisite clear statement by Congress, the inevitable conclusion to be drawn is that Congress did not intend to allow private citizens to file suit against a state under this statute. Accordingly, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's motion to dismiss shall be granted.
The court's Order was previously entered on October 28, 1983.
AN NOW, TO WIT, this 13th day of September, 1984, upon motion of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to dismiss. IT IS ORDERED that the motion is granted and the amended third-party complaint filed by the Union Gas Company is dismissed for the reasons set forth in this court's Memorandum dated November 15, 1983.