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UNITED STATES v. UNION GAS CO.

November 15, 1983

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
v.
UNION GAS COMPANY v. COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA and THE BOROUGH OF STROUDSBURG


Louis C. Bechtle, United States District Judge.


The opinion of the court was delivered by: BECHTLE

LOUIS C. BECHTLE, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE

 The Eleventh Amendment to the federal Constitution embodies the doctrine of state sovereign immunity. It provides as follows:

 
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

 U.S. CONST. amend. XI.

 Accordingly, suits against a state by citizens from either another state or a foreign state are barred. Additionally, although the amendment does not expressly address suits against a state by its own citizens, the Supreme Court has recognized that such suits are also barred. Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S. 651, 653, 39 L. Ed. 2d 662, 94 S. Ct. 1347 (1974) (citations omitted).

 Exceptions to the states' Eleventh Amendment sovereign immunity exist in situations where either the state has consented to the filing of such a suit, Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S. 651, 39 L. Ed. 2d 662, 94 S. Ct. 1347 (1974); Ford Motor Co. v. Department of Treasury, 323 U.S. 459, 89 L. Ed. 389, 65 S. Ct. 347 (1945), or Congress has abrogated the states' sovereign immunity by explicit statutory mandate. Parden v. Terminal R. Co., 377 U.S. 184, 12 L. Ed. 2d 233, 84 S. Ct. 1207 (1964); Employees v. Missouri Public Health Dept., 411 U.S. 279, 36 L. Ed. 2d 251, 93 S. Ct. 1614 (1973). See Quern v. Jordan, 440 U.S. 332, 59 L. Ed. 2d 358, 99 S. Ct. 1139 (1974); Hutto v. Finney, 437 U.S. 678, 57 L. Ed. 2d 522, 98 S. Ct. 2565 (1978); Fitzpatrick v. Bitzer, 427 U.S. 445, 49 L. Ed. 2d 614, 96 S. Ct. 2666 (1976). Union Gas contends that it fits within the latter category. Union Gas claims that in enacting CERCLA, Congress effectively abrogated the states' immunity from suit by private citizens seeking indemnity for costs incurred in the clean-up of hazardous waste sites.

 Union Gas's position must be considered in light of a line of Supreme Court cases, the holdings of which may be distilled into a rule which the court shall call the "clear statement rule." The principle embodied in the clear statement rule is that a state cannot be sued pursuant to the liability provisions of a federal law unless Congress provides a clear statement that it intended to abrogate the states' immunity with respect to that law. The origin of this rule may be traced to Parden v. Terminal R. Co., 377 U.S. 184, 12 L. Ed. 2d 233, 84 S. Ct. 1207 (1964), wherein the Court faced, for the first time, a state's claim of immunity against suit by an individual upon a cause of action expressly created by Congress. The issue to be decided was whether a state that owned and operated a railroad in interstate commerce could successfully plead sovereign immunity in a federal suit brought against the railroad by its employee under the Federal Employers' Liability Act ("FELA"), 45 U.S.C. § 51, et seq. The Court's analysis focused on the question of whether Congress, in enacting the FELA, intended to subject a state to suit under the circumstances presented. After reviewing the terms and purposes of the FELA, the Court concluded that indeed Congress had intended to allow states to be sued under the FELA's liability provisions. The case ultimately turned on the determination that the state, by engaging itself in the railroad business for profit, had entered into an area normally occupied by private persons and corporations. It had therefore consented to be subject to the federal regulations applicable to the railroad industry and had waived its sovereign immunity from a suit under the FELA.

 The Parden decision was subsequently limited in Employees v. Missouri Public Health Dept., 411 U.S. 279, 36 L. Ed. 2d 251, 93 S. Ct. 1614 (1973), a case filed against administrative departments of the State of Missouri by state employees seeking overtime compensation allegedly due them under the Fair Labor Standards Act ("FLSA"), 29 U.S.C. § 216(b). Despite express language in the Act that its coverage extended to certain state employees, the Court refused to find that Congress had lifted the sovereign immunity of the states "where the purpose of Congress to give force to the Supremacy Clause by lifting the sovereignty of the States and putting the States on the same footing as other employers is not clear." Id. 411 U.S. at 287. *fn1" After reviewing the pertinent legislative history of the FLSA the Court concluded that if Congress intended to deprive the states of their constitutional immunity, it would not have done so silently. Since there was no "clear language" in either the statute itself or its legislative history which would indicate that the states' constitutional immunity was swept away, the Court ruled that the Eleventh Amendment barred the employees' suits against their state employer. 411 U.S. at 285.

 In Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S. 651, 39 L. Ed. 2d 662, 94 S. Ct. 1347 (1974), the Court reversed the Seventh Circuit's holding that a state, by participating in a federal-state aid program governed by federal regulations, had "constructively consented" to a citizen's suit related to the state's administration of that program. The Edelman Court reiterated that in considering a claim of surrender of Eleventh Amendment immunity in the face of federal legislation, "we will find waiver only where stated 'by the most express language or by such overwhelming implications from the text as [will] leave no room for any other reasonable construction.'" Id. 415 U.S. at 673 (citations omitted). *fn2"

 Congressional awareness and compliance with the Supreme Court decisions setting out the clear statement rule cannot be disputed. Congress has, through clear statutory language and legislative intent, enacted a number of laws effectively abrogating a state's immunity in federal court. See, e.g., Parks v. Pavkovic, 536 F. Supp. 296, 309 (N.D. Ill. 1982)(Education for All Handicap Children Act of 1975 specifically intended to impose liability on states for certain education costs); Oneida Indian Nation of Wisconsin v. State of New York, 520 F. Supp. 1278, 1305 (N.D. N.Y. 1981) (intent to abrogate state immunity inferred from congressional intent, statutory language and special relationship between the Indian tribe and federal government); modified on other grounds, 691 F.2d 1070 (2d Cir. 1982); Witter v. Pennsylvania Nat'l Guard, 462 F. Supp. 299, 306 (E.D. Pa. 1978) (Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Act is an express authorization of federal suits against a state for back pay). Abrogation of immunity in these cases was premised on a finding that in enacting the particular legislation at issue, Congress clearly expressed its intent to allow states to be sued. Compare Savage v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 475 F. Supp. 524, 529 (E.D. Pa. 1979) (Civil Rights Act of 1871 not intended by Congress to abrogate a state's immunity (citing Quern v. Jordan, 440 U.S. 332, 59 L. Ed. 2d 358, 99 S. Ct. 1139 (1979)); Municipal Authority of Bloomsburg v. Dept. of Environmental Resources, 496 F. Supp. 686, 689 (M.D. Pa. 1980)(Federal Water Pollution Control Act amendments did not abrogate the states' immunity); Stubbs v. Kline, 463 F. Supp. 110, 116 (W.D. Pa. 1978) (Rehabilitation Act of 1973 did not contain the requisite congressional intent to abrogate a state's Eleventh Amendment immunity).

 Applying the clear statement rule to the facts of the present case indicates that allowance of the claim against the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania depends on a finding that Congress expressly intended to abrogate a state's sovereign immunity. *fn3" A review of the statutory provisions and legislative history of CERCLA, however, reveals that there is no clear statement of such an intent in CERCLA.

 Turning to the actual statutory provisions themselves, the court finds nothing to indicate that Congress intended to allow states to be sued by private citizens under CERCLA. Union Gas's assertion that Congress did intend to lift the states' sovereign immunity centers upon language in Section 9607 that any "person" responsible for illegal toxic waste dumping is liable to other "persons" for costs ...


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