616 (1980); Schenkel v. Monheit, 266 Pa. Super. 396, 399, 405 A.2d, 493, 494 (1979). This is merely a restatement of the traditional elements of negligence: duty, breach, cause, and damages. Proof of damages is also an essential element for a legal malpractice action brought in contract. Duke & Company v. Anderson, 418 A.2d at 617. Plaintiff has failed to show that he has been damaged on either his tort or contract theory. Again, this is because his medical malpractice cases are still pending. Plaintiff has also not demonstrated a causal link in his tort claim between the defendants' nonfeasance and his injury. This of course he cannot do until he has been injured. There can be no case until there is a cause of action, and there can be no cause of action until there is an injury.
It has been suggested that this Court might chose to stay rather than to dismiss the present proceedings pending the outcome of the underlying cases. That would only be necessary if plaintiff's interpretation and application of the discovery rule to the statute of limitations was correct. However, the discovery rule, which starts the running of the statute of limitations when the plaintiff discovers his injury and its causal connection to the defendant, is not the normative rule for determining when the statute of limitations commences. It is rather a corollary to the occurrence rule, which triggers the running of the statute when the injury occurs, and is employed only to mitigate the occurrence rule's occasional harshness.
I note that there is a conflict of authority regarding the appropriate rule in the early Pennsylvania legal malpractice cases. The early case of Derrickson v. Cady, 7 Pa. 27 (1847) seems to imply that the statute commences when the attorney's negligence is discovered by the client. "The Pennsylvania rule, I take it, would be for the statute to begin to run from the time the client had notice of the attorney's [nonfeasance]." Derrickson, 7 Pa. at 31. However, a subsequent line of cases follows the occurrence rule without overruling Derrickson.4 According to these cases, a cause of action accrues when the attorney breaches his duty to his client and not when the lawyer's negligence is discovered by the client, even though the client neither knows nor has reason to know of his attorney's misfeasance or nonfeasance. "The cases have usually arisen on the statute of limitations, and it has been uniformly held that the right of action is complete so that the statute begins to run from the breach although the damage may not be known or may not in fact occur until afterwards." Lawall v. Groman, 180 Pa. 532, 541, 37 A. 98 (1897). "Where the declaration, as in this case, alleges a breach of duty and a special consequential damage, the breach of duty and not the consequential damage is the cause of action, and the statute runs from the date of the former, not from the time the special damage is revealed or becomes definite." Moore v. Juvenal, 92 Pa. 484, 490 (1880). This means that potential damage, the breach of duty, and not actual damage, the resulting injury, triggers the statute of limitations. These cases thus eliminated damage as an element of legal malpractice, a decidedly curious result since damage has long been considered a necessary element of negligence. "Proof of negligence in the air, so to speak, will not do." F. Pollack, Torts, 455 (11th ed). This anomalous result was justified on the grounds that statutes of limitations were legislative creations written in terms of "injury" and "rights of action" rather than in terms of discovery, "so that a judicial construction limiting [a statute], to notice of a right of action would be sheer legislation." Fleming v. Culbert, 46 Pa. 498 (1864) (original emphasis).
Additionally, strict application of this version of the occurrence rule often led to unjust results. Frequently a trusting client was precluded from any recovery whatsoever because he discovered his attorney's negligence only after the statute had run on both the underlying claim and on any claim he may have had against the dilatory attorney.
If this interpretation were to be used in the present case, plaintiff's cause of action against the defendants would have arisen when the underlying medical malpractice suit was time-barred in July 1974 and not, as plaintiff argues, when the Court of Common Pleas so ruled in January 1981. This would mean that the two year statute of limitations, and therefore the plaintiff's right to sue, expired in July 1976.
In Derrickson and Juvenal I am confronted with old and conflicting authority and must therefore look to emerging trends in Pennsylvania law in order to "predict but not form" state law. Kohr v. Raybestos-Manhattan, 505 F. Supp. 159, 162 (E.D. Pa. 1981). To do this "relevant state precedents must be scrutinized with an eye toward the broad policies that informed those adjudications, and to the doctrinal trends which they evince." McKenna v. Ortho Pharmaceutical Corp., 622 F.2d 657, 662 (3d Cir. 1980). There has been a clear trend in this century to use the discovery rule to protect plaintiffs who are not themselves negligent in asserting claims but who would be barred from bringing suit because they could not have discovered the injury until more than two years after it had occurred. The discovery rule has the effect of delaying the running of the statute from the occurrence of the injury or breach of duty until the plaintiff either discovers he has been harmed or until he discovers the defendant's causal relation to his injury. The first major use of the rule was in cases involving hidden subterranean injuries, see Smith v. Bell Telephone Co., 397 Pa. 134, 153 A.2d 477 (1959); Lewey v. Fricke Coke Co., 166 Pa. 536, 31 A. 261 (1895); Gotshall v. Langdon, 16 Pa. Super. 158 (1901). But see Noonan v. Pardee, 200 Pa. 474, 50 A. 255 (1901). The rule has since been extended to medical malpractice cases, see Ciabattoni v. Birdsboro Steel Foundry and Machine Company, 386 Pa. 179, 125 A.2d 365 (1956); personal injury cases, see O'Brien v. Eli Lilly & Co., 668 F.2d 704 (1981); Bayless v. Philadelphia National League Club, 579 F.2d 37 (1978); Irrera v. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, 231 Pa. Super. 508, 331 A.2d 705 (1974); asbestos cases, see Grabowski v. Turner & Newall Ltd., et al., 516 F. Supp. 114 (E.D. Pa. 1980), aff'd sub nom. DaMato v. Turner & Newall Ltd., 651 F.2d 908 (3d Cir. 1981) (per curiam); Volpe v. Johns-Manville Corp., 4 P.C.R. 290 (Phila. C.P. 1980); breach of contract suits involving latent defects, see A.J. Aberman v. Funk Building Corporation, 278 Pa. Super. 385, 420 A.2d 594 (1980); and wrongful death actions, see Gemignani v. Philadelphia Phillies National League, Club, Inc., 287 F. Supp. 465 (E.D. Pa. 1967). But see Anthony v. Koppers Co., Inc., 496 Pa. 119, 436 A.2d 181 (1981) (precluded the use of the discovery rule for determining when the statute of limitations begins in wrongful death actions).
The increasing recognition of the discovery rule does not mean that it is the standard rule for determining when the statute of limitations begins to run. The rule is rather a limited one designed to solve the anomalies that are inevitably created by wooden applications of the occurrence rule. See Koppers, 436 A.2d at 185 (O'Brien, C.J., dissenting). It is "a judicial creation fashioned to solve a specific problem, namely, whether the law should preclude recovery for an injury that not even a diligent party may reasonably be expected to discover." Anthony v. Koppers Co., Inc., 284 Pa. Super 81, 425 A.2d 428 (1980).
The discovery rule is therefore a corollary to the occurrence rule. It is not a separate, superceding rule.
Furthermore, the discovery rule is founded upon simple notions of equity and fairness. It is only used to toll the statute of limitations to prevent an injustice, never to start the statute to create one. Since the discovery rule is appropriately invoked only when the occurrence rule would lead to an unjust result, it logically follows that the discovery rule can only apply after an injury has occurred. It would indeed be unjust for the statute of limitations to begin to run when someone merely suspects an injury may occur. But the law of Pennsylvania, the older cases notwithstanding, is that the statute is triggered by real injuries, not potential ones.
It does not follow from my decision that the plaintiff is without a remedy; only that the remedy must await a wrong. Plaintiff is free to renew his claim should be unsuccessfully exhaust his appeals in the underlying cases. Only then will he have suffered an injury to which the law may grant redress.
An appropriate order will be entered.
AND NOW, this 27th day of July, 1982, upon consideration of the defendants' Motion to Dismiss, it is hereby Ordered that the motion is GRANTED and this action is DISMISSED without prejudice.
AND IT IS SO ORDERED.