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June 30, 1982


The opinion of the court was delivered by: POLLAK

 This matter is here on remand from the Court of Appeals. *fn1" It presents questions as to the authority of the Delaware River Basin Commission ("DRBC") -- a river-regulatory body established in 1961 by interstate compact and composed of Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and the United States -- to impose charges for withdrawals of water from the Delaware River. What this court must do is determine whether the scheme of water-use charges and exemptions established by DRBC eight years ago in its Resolution 74-6 satisfies the principles of equal protection enshrined in the Fourteenth Amendment and incorporated in the Fifth Amendment.

 This action began as a suit by DRBC to impose water-use charges on defendants Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority ("Bucks County") and the City of Philadelphia for water drawn from the Delaware by Philadelphia and subsequently sold to Bucks County. In granting DRBC's motion for summary judgment, I determined (a) that while Philadelphia was exempt from water-use charges for withdrawals made for its own use, this exemption did not extend to withdrawals made for sale to non-exempt third parties such as Bucks County, and (b) that Resolution 74-6, imposing charges on water-users generally but exempting Philadelphia and other users having a "legal entitlement" to take water from the Delaware before the 1961 Delaware River Basin Compact, did not violate the constitutional guarantee of equal protection. Accordingly, the defendants were found liable for water-use charges imposed by DRBC pursuant to Resolution 74-6 for the water withdrawn by Philadelphia and sold to Bucks County. *fn2" See DRBC v. Bucks County Water and Sewer Authority, 474 F. Supp. 1249 (E.D.Pa.1979).

 Bucks County appealed from my determination that Resolution 74-6 was not constitutionally infirm. Without ruling conclusively on the constitutional question, the Court of Appeals vacated the grant of summary judgment and remanded the case to permit DRBC to proffer some rationale for the challenged Resolution that might satisfy the demands of equal protection. I thereupon directed DRBC to notify potential intervenors of the pendency of this action in order to have the benefit of their views. A host of current users of water from the Delaware River Basin have entered this case on both sides of the issue. These intervenors, along with the original parties, have worked with commendable diligence to document the legislative history of the Delaware River Basin Compact which established DRBC and set forth its powers, and to provide a fuller explanation of the purposes and operation of Resolution 74-6. The parties have now cross-moved for summary judgment.

 I. Questions Presented on Remand

 As the opinion of the Court of Appeals makes clear, the question presented in this case is a narrow one. Under Section 3.7 of the Compact, DRBC has a limited authority to impose water-use charges on those who draw water from the Basin. *fn3" A principal limitation on this authority is found in Section 15.1(b):

No provision of section 3.7 of the Compact shall be deemed to authorize the commission to impose any charge for water withdrawals or diversions from the Basin if such withdrawals or diversions could lawfully have been made without charge on the effective date of the Compact.
"Legal entitlement" means the quantity or volume of water expressed in million gallons per month determined by the lesser of the following conditions:
(i) a valid and subsisting permit, issued under the authority of one of the signatory parties, if such permit was required as of October 27, 1961, or thereafter;
(ii) physical capability as required for such taking; or
(iii) the total allocable flow without augmentation by the Commission, using a seven-day, ten-year, low-flow criterion measured at the point of withdrawal or diversion.

 Resolution 74-6, ┬ž 5-1.3(b)(1) (May 22, 1974).

 The appeal by Bucks County was framed narrowly as an attack on Resolution 74-6's definition of the "legal entitlement" criterion governing exemptions from DRBC water-use charges. Accordingly, the constitutionality of Section 15.1(b) itself was not challenged. Moreover, the power of DRBC to promulgate Resolution 74-6 was not contested since it was clearly determined in Borough of Morrisville v. Delaware River Basin Comm'n, 399 F. Supp. 469 (E.D.Pa. 1975), aff'd per curiam, 532 F.2d 745 (3rd Cir. 1976), that DRBC had authority under the Compact to adopt the Resolution. Thus, the only question presented to the Court of Appeals was whether DRBC's method of implementing Sections 3.7 and 15.1(b) of the Compact was rationally related to a proper governmental purpose. The Court of Appeals concluded that since "it has not been demonstrated that the exemption from water use charges conferred on certain users of Basin water by Resolution 74-6 is rationally related to the attainment of a legitimate state purpose, we cannot sustain -- at least at this time -- the Resolution . . . ." DRBC v. Bucks County, supra, 641 F.2d at 1100. The remand was designed expressly to provide the Commission and any intervenors with an opportunity to "proffer some purpose that the court may reasonably presume to have motivated the Congress that added Section 15.1(b) to the Compact, [so that] there will be available a standard against which to test the rationality of Resolution 74-6." Id.4

 Therefore, in considering the parties' cross-motions for summary judgment on remand, I must first examine the purposes which the Congress may reasonably have sought to advance in enacting Section 15.1(b), and then determine whether the classifications found in ...

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