The opinion of the court was delivered by: DAVIS
The issue, in this Fair Labor Standards Act
(hereafter the Act) litigation, is whether alleged violations of the Act's minimum wage provisions (§ 6)
for which both injunctive relief and liquidated damages are sought, are cognizable by this court when pursued as an adjunct to a petition for adjudication of civil contempt to enforce the court's prior judgment enjoining future violations of section 7 of the Act.
I conclude that it is improper to permit this independent action to assume such an abnormal procedural posture but, for the reasons which follow, deny the respondent's motion to dismiss the claims for minimum wage violations and liquidated damages.
This action was commenced on September 24, 1976, when the Secretary filed a complaint alleging essentially violations of section 7 of the Act; the overtime and related record-keeping provisions. Jurisdiction was predicated exclusively on section 17 of the Act.
A consent judgment was entered into by the parties, and on January 14, 1977 this court rendered a final judgment in this action enjoining any future violations set forth in the complaint. After completing a follow-up investigation, the Government filed the petition for adjudication of civil contempt at issue herein. In its petition the Government prays for an adjudication of civil contempt for violation of the 1977 consent judgment; an injunction pursuant to section 17 enjoining respondents from violating the minimum wage provisions (section 6) of the Act and liquidated damages pursuant to section 16(c) in the amount of unpaid overtime and minimum wages found due. Respondent now moves to dismiss the minimum wage claim and liquidated damages claims pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P. 12(b)(1) and (6). In order to expedite this matter which has now been languishing because of a deluge of motions and significant discovery disputes, I shall attempt to state my reasons for denying the aforesaid motions as concisely as possible.
Preliminarily, I note that the consent decree entered on January 14, 1977 was a final judgment under Fed.R.Civ.P. 54(a). United States v. City of Providence, 492 F. Supp. 602, 604 n.1 (D.R.I.1980). See also, Fox v. U. S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, -- - F.2d -- at -- Nos. 82-1039 and 82-1063 (3rd Cir. June 1, 1982) at 14. Its effect is to terminate the action except for purposes of appellate review or enforcement of the judgment itself. 10 Wright and Miller, Fed. Practice and Procedure, § 2651 at 10. Petitioner's attempt to invoke Fed.R.Civ.P. 18(a)
as a basis for joinder of the minimum wage and liquidated damages claims to the contempt petition is unavailing since, by its terms, the judgment granting injunctive relief on the overtime claims is final. Petitioners cannot, at this late stage, bring new claims in an action which has otherwise been terminated by a valid decree. Relief for any new violations of the Act not covered by the prior decree can only be obtained under the statutory procedure.
On the other hand, the contempt proceeding initiated by the petitioner is part of the original cause of action. LaTrobe Steel Co. v. United Steel Workers, Etc., 545 F.2d 1336, 1343, 1344 (3rd Cir. 1976); Shakman v. Democratic Organization of Cook Cty., 533 F.2d 344, 352 n.11 (7th Cir. 1976), cert. denied, 429 U.S. 858, 97 S. Ct. 156, 50 L. Ed. 2d 135 (1976). Wirtz v. Ocala Gas Co., Inc., 336 F.2d 236, 243 (5th Cir. 1964). This contempt power arises from the court's inherent authority to enforce its judgments. Ex Parte, Robinson, 86 U.S. 505, 19 Wall. (86 U.S.) 505, 510, 22 L. Ed. 205 (1874); Fernos-Lopez v. U. S. District Court, Etc., 599 F.2d 1087, 1090-91 (3rd Cir. 1979), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 931, 100 S. Ct. 275, 62 L. Ed. 2d 189 reh. denied, 444 U.S. 1103, 100 S. Ct. 1070, 62 L. Ed. 2d 790 (1980). As previously noted,
a consent decree, although negotiated by the parties, is a judicial act which is enforceable via the court's contempt power pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 401 (1976). Interdynamics, Inc. v. Wolf, 653 F.2d 93, 96-97 (3rd Cir. 1981), cert. denied, 454 U.S. 1092, 102 S. Ct. 658, 70 L. Ed. 2d 631 (1981). It is beyond cavil, therefore, that enforcement of the judgment enjoining future violations of the overtime provisions of the Act can be compelled through the use of the court's contempt power. See Mitchell v. Fiore, 470 F.2d 1149, 1152-53 (3rd Cir. 1972), cert. denied, 411 U.S. 938, 93 S. Ct. 1899, 36 L. Ed. 2d 399 (1973). Fleming v. Warshawsky & Co., 123 F.2d 622, 625-26 (7th Cir. 1941). Consequently, the only remaining question is whether new claims under the Act not covered by the consent judgment can be appended to the contempt petition to broaden the court's prior injunction without filing a separate action in a formal manner. I view this question as merely one of proper pleading; not of jurisdictional consequence.
Both sections envision the filing of a civil action as the enforcement mechanism for violations of the Act's substantive wage and hour provisions. Under Fed.R.Civ.P. 3, a "civil action is commenced by filing a complaint with the Court." See Walker v. Armco Steel Corp., 446 U.S. 740, 750, 100 S. Ct. 1978, 1985, 64 L. Ed. 2d 659 (1980). The petitioner's assertion of the new claims, the jurisdictional basis therefor, and request for relief in its contempt petition, although not formally denominated a complaint, is not fatal. The papers submitted in conjunction with the contempt petition were sufficient to comply with Fed.R.Civ.P. 3 and 8.
With their service upon the respondent, the notice function intended by federal rules was adequately served.
Thus, any technical defect in the manner in which this new action was instituted is not jurisdictional and does not prevent entry of a valid judgment. Schlesinger v. Councilman, 420 U.S. 738, 742 n.5, 95 S. Ct. 1300, 1305 n.5, 43 L. Ed. 2d 591 (1975). Accord, Appeal of F.T.C. Line of Business Report Litigation, 193 U.S. App. D.C. 300, 595 F.2d 685, 704 n.11 (D.C.Cir.1978), cert. denied, 439 U.S. 958, 99 S. Ct. 362, 58 L. Ed. 2d 351 (1978). Furthermore, it is inconsequential that the pleading was not filed and docketed by the clerk of court as a complaint since Fed.R.Civ.P. 5(e) provides that the judge may permit papers to be filed with him.
To accept the respondent's contention would subvert the basic purpose of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure
and cause needless delay in this action which is already suffering from a prolonged bout with this type of dilatory illness. I conclude, therefore, that under the circumstances of this case, the respondent's motion to dismiss is without merit and is denied accordingly.
AND NOW, this 3rd day of June, 1982, for the reasons set forth in the attached memorandum, it is hereby ORDERED that:
1. Respondent's motions to dismiss pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P. 12(b)(1) and (6) are DENIED.
2. A copy of the petition for adjudication of civil contempt shall be forwarded to the clerk of court by this court and shall be docketed as the first pleading in the civil action for injunctive relief and liquidated damages pursuant to 29 U.S.C. § 216(c), 217 nunc pro tunc.
3. The petitioner is granted leave to amend the pleading sua sponte pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P. 15(a) within ten ...