prosecution on the basis of the evidence presented. (Foster Dep. II 5, 13). Rather, he was offering what he perceived to be the most expeditious and legally unobjectionable way to proceed in view of potential problems presented by the earlier grand jury investigation. (Foster Dep. II 14).
24. After receiving this legal advice from Foster, Special Agent Box contacted Assistant United States Attorney Magarity and asked whether he had any interest in pursuing a grand jury investigation of McNulty's tax liabilities. (Tr. 44; Box Dep. I 8; Box Dep. II 33-34). On June 5, 1978, Magarity advised Box that there was no interest in pursuing such a grand jury investigation and that a grand jury investigation of McNulty's correct tax liabilities would not be approved by the Department of Justice because there was not enough information to indicate McNulty had committed a tax crime. (Tr. 44-45).
25. After receiving this information, Box and Hunsberger decided to pursue the investigation by means of administrative summonses. (Tr. 44-45, 50; Box Dep. I 6-8; Box Dep. II 12, 16).
26. It was not until after this decision was made that Box obtained the grand jury materials covered by the Rule 6(e) order. (Box Dep. I 14-15, 20; Box Dep. II 16-18).
27. At no time during any of her discussions with Magarity did Box make available to the U.S. Attorney or to any other government agency, information obtained by the IRS in the McNulty investigation. (Box Dep. I 13).
28. Each summons was issued pursuant to the IRS joint civil and criminal investigation of McNulty's tax liability for the years in question.
29. The records which are sought by each of the summonses may be relevant to a determination of McNulty's correct tax liability for the years in question and to whether he has violated the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. (Tr. 13).
30. The information which is sought is not already in the possession of the IRS.
31. At the time the summonses were issued, the IRS had not referred the McNulty investigation to the Justice Department for criminal prosecution.
32. At the time the summonses were issued, the IRS had made no institutional decision to refer this investigation to the Justice Department for criminal prosecution. (Tr. 14).
33. At the time the summonses were issued, Special Agent Box had made no decision to recommend that the investigation be referred for criminal prosecution. (Tr. 15; Box Dep. II 32).
34. The summonses were not issued by the IRS solely to obtain information for criminal prosecution.
Section 7602 of the Internal Revenue Code, 26 U.S.C. § 7602, empowers the IRS to issue summonses to obtain testimony and documents for the purpose of "ascertaining the correctness of any return, making a return where none has been made, determining the liability of any person for any internal revenue tax ... or collecting any such liability ...." Although the statute contains no such limitation, it has long been settled that in exercising its summons power, the IRS may not obtain information for the sole purpose of pursuing a criminal investigation. Donaldson v. United States, 400 U.S. 517, 533, 91 S. Ct. 534, 543, 27 L. Ed. 2d 580 (1971). In resisting enforcement of the summonses in question here, McNulty contends that they were issued for the sole purpose of uncovering information which will eventually be used in a criminal prosecution. The disposition of this contention requires a brief discussion of the standards governing the enforceability of an IRS summons.
The crucial inquiry in a case of this nature is to determine the institutional posture of the IRS at the time the summons is issued. In United States v. LaSalle National Bank, 437 U.S. 298, 98 S. Ct. 2357, 57 L. Ed. 2d 221 (1978), the Supreme Court determined that the primary limitation upon the use of the summons power occurs when the IRS refers an investigation to the Justice Department for criminal prosecution. Once such a referral has been made, the IRS is conclusively precluded from issuing summonses for taxpayer-related records pertaining to the matter under investigation. Id. at 311, 98 S. Ct. at 2365. See also United States v. Garden State National Bank, 607 F.2d 61, 67 (3d Cir. 1979). Where an investigation has not yet been referred to the Justice Department, a summons is presumptively valid and subject to challenge by the taxpayer only if it has not been issued in good faith. United States v. LaSalle National Bank, supra, 437 U.S. at 313, 98 S. Ct. at 2366. At the threshold, it is the government's burden to prove a prima facie case of good faith as defined in United States v. Powell, 379 U.S. 48, 85 S. Ct. 248, 13 L. Ed. 2d 112 (1964). The elements of such a showing are that:
1. the investigation is being conducted for a legitimate purpose;
2. the material sought is relevant to that purpose;
3. the information sought is not yet in the possession of the IRS; and
4. the proper administrative steps have been followed.
Id. at 57-58; 85 S. Ct. at 255. Once this burden has been met, the taxpayer must establish that, although no formal referral has occurred, the IRS has made an institutional commitment to refer the case for criminal prosecution and that the summonses issued after that commitment has been made serve no civil purpose. United States v. Genser, 602 F.2d 69, 71 (3d Cir.) (per curiam), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 928, 100 S. Ct. 269, 62 L. Ed. 2d 185 (1979) (Genser III ). In short, there must be an institutional abandonment of the pursuit of civil tax determination or collection. United States v. Serubo, 604 F.2d 807, 811 (3d Cir. 1979).
The LaSalle standards have been further refined by the Third Circuit. The period before the IRS refers an investigation to the Justice Department for criminal prosecution is divided into two parts. See United States v. Genser, 595 F.2d 146 (3d Cir.) (Genser II ), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 928, 100 S. Ct. 269, 62 L. Ed. 2d 185 (1979). A summons issued prior to the time that the investigating agent has recommended prosecution to his superiors, is "virtually unassailable." Id. at 151. After the agent makes such a recommendation, but before the IRS formally refers the matter to the Justice Department for criminal prosecution, the taxpayer bears the "heavy" burden of proving a pre-existing institutional commitment to refer for prosecution as well as the absence of any civil purpose underlying the summons. Id; United States v. Garden State National Bank, supra, 607 F.2d at 70. However, a summons issued before the investigating agent has made a recommendation to his superiors to prosecute criminally may be subject to challenge if, for example, it was issued at the request of a United States Attorney or if the agent was instructed by his superiors to delay recommendation for the sole purpose of allowing information to be gathered by way of summons. Genser II, supra, 595 F.2d at 151.
It remains to apply these general principles to the facts of this case. It is undisputed on this record that the IRS had not formally referred this matter to the Justice Department for criminal prosecution at the time the summonses were issued. Moreover, I have determined that the IRS has made no institutional commitment to refer the matter for prosecution and that Special Agent Box has not recommended to her superiors that McNulty be criminally prosecuted. Findings of Fact Nos. 32, 33. Finally, it is clear that the IRS has sustained its burden of satisfying the Powell standards for good faith by virtue of the sworn affidavits of Special Agent Box which were filed with the complaints. See United States v. McCarthy, 514 F.2d 368, 372-373 (3d Cir. 1975). The only question remaining for my determination is whether McNulty has sustained his burden of demonstrating that the U.S. Attorney's tangential involvement in this investigation establishes that the summonses were issued by the IRS solely for the purpose of obtaining information for criminal prosecution. I conclude that he has not.
At the outset, I reject McNulty's contention that because the IRS investigation had its genesis in an exclusively criminal inquiry, specifically the grand jury materials obtained pursuant to Judge Fullam's Rule 6(e) order, it must be inferred that the IRS is likewise pursuing a purely criminal investigation. In United States v. Cleveland Trust Co., 474 F.2d 1234 (6th Cir.), cert. denied, 414 U.S. 866, 94 S. Ct. 48, 38 L. Ed. 2d 118 (1973), the court determined that an in-depth audit did not lose its character as a civil tax examination merely because it was commenced by the IRS at the suggestion of the Justice Department's Organized Crime Strike Force. Accord United States v. Chemical Bank, 593 F.2d 451, 455-56 (2d Cir. 1979); United States v. Chase Manhattan Bank, 486 F. Supp. 317, 319 (S.D.N.Y.1979), aff'd mem., 620 F.2d 286 (2d Cir. 1980). These decisions are premised upon a recognition that in the exercise of its broad investigatory powers, the IRS obtains information about possible tax violations from a wide variety of sources. This information, regardless of its source, may generate an interest in civil tax recovery as well as in potential criminal prosecution and will necessarily spawn an investigation in which the civil and criminal elements are coterminous. Thus, the good faith of a summons is not contingent upon the source or nature of the information prompting the investigation but upon the IRS' motivation in conducting the inquiry.
McNulty's more troublesome contention is that the IRS involvement with the grand jury investigation and, subsequently Special Agent Box's contacts with the U. S. Attorney raise the inference that the IRS is merely acting as "an information-gathering agency" for the Department of Justice. See United States v. LaSalle National Bank, supra, 437 U.S. at 317, 98 S. Ct. at 2368; United States v. Serubo, supra, 604 F.2d at 813. Clearly, when an IRS agent works hand in hand with the U. S. Attorney in pursuing an investigation, the bona fides of utilizing the summons procedure may be seriously compromised. See United States v. Serubo, supra; United States v. Chase Manhattan Bank, 598 F.2d 321 (2d Cir. 1979).
Indeed, one of the principal exceptions to the "virtually unassailable" presumption in favor of a summons issued prior to an agent's recommendation to prosecute is a situation where the agent acts as a "conduit" to channel information to the U. S. Attorney. See United States v. First National State Bank of New Jersey, 616 F.2d 668, 671 (3d Cir.), cert. denied, 447 U.S. 905, 100 S. Ct. 2987, 64 L. Ed. 2d 854 (1980); United States v. Garden State National Bank, supra, 607 F.2d at 70. I have carefully examined the record in this matter and conclude that nothing transpired during Special Agent Box's contacts with Assistant U. S. Attorney Magarity which would undermine the validity of these summonses.
The record clearly reveals that the grand jury investigation concluded with O'Neill's indictment in August of 1977, approximately four months before the IRS investigation was opened and assigned to Box. After hearing that McNulty had been the target of a grand jury, Ms. Box initiated contact with the U.S. Attorney because of her concern that the prior grand jury inquiry might have adverse implications for her ability to conduct the IRS investigation by means of summonses. She communicated with Agent Tamm and with Assistant U.S. Attorney Magarity in order to ascertain if they were still pursuing or intended to pursue an investigation of McNulty via the grand jury. In addition, she consulted with attorney Foster to solicit his advice as to the best way to proceed. There is no evidence that Box sought to encourage or induce Magarity to initiate another grand jury investigation nor is there anything to indicate that she turned over materials gathered by the IRS to Magarity.
Moreover, Box testified unequivocally that she had made no determination as to the likelihood of either a civil penalty assessment or criminal prosecution because the investigation was then in its incipiency and she lacked a sufficient amount of information to make a reasoned decision in this regard. In view of all this, I cannot conclude that Box's sporadic contacts with the U.S. Attorney at the outset of the investigation fatally compromised the propriety of the summons. Rather, the evidence clearly establishes that in conducting this investigation the IRS has not abandoned its civil enforcement purposes and has not engaged in actions which belie the good faith of the summonses.
For all of the foregoing reasons, defendants will be ordered to produce the records summoned within twenty days.