Thomas F. Traud, Jr., Allentown, for appellant.
Kevin J. Kelleher, Easton, for appellees.
Price, Montemuro and Hoffman, JJ. Price, J., did not participate in the consideration or decision of this case.
[ 293 Pa. Super. Page 90]
Appellant contends that the lower court erred in directing verdicts for appellees in these vehicular negligence actions because the issue of contributory negligence should have been submitted to the jury.*fn1 We agree and, accordingly, reverse the judgments of the court below and remand for a new trial.
"In our Commonwealth, it has long been held that only in a case where the facts are all clear, and there is no room for doubt, should the case be removed from the jury's consideration, and a motion for a directed verdict or binding instructions be granted." Stephens v. Carrara, 265 Pa. Superior Ct. 102, 105, 401 A.2d 821, 822 (1979) (citation omitted). "[O]n a motion for a directed verdict, the court must accept as true all facts and proper inferences which tend to support the contention of the party against whom the motion has been made and must reject all testimony and differences [ sic ] to the contrary." Cox v. Equitable Gas Co., 227 Pa. Superior Ct. 153, 155, 324 A.2d 516, 518 (1974) (citations omitted). See also McElhinny v. Iliff, 436 Pa. 506, 511, 260 A.2d 739, 741 (1970). So viewed, the facts may be stated as follows.
At approximately four o'clock on a Friday afternoon, appellant's automobile struck the rear of appellees' automobile on Route 191, a two-lane highway, in Bangor, Pennsylvania. Appellant testified that he had been driving southward at thirty to thirty-five miles per hour when he first
[ 293 Pa. Super. Page 91]
noticed appellees' automobile about two hundred feet ahead. Appellant did not then know whether the car was stationary or moving. Appellant next noticed it when he was one or two car lengths behind. He immediately applied his brakes, but could not stop his automobile before colliding with appellees' automobile. Appellant testified also that he never saw appellees' brake lights, turn signals, or hand signals. A policeman who had been about seventy-five to one hundred feet from the scene testified that he saw appellees' automobile drive by, followed about ten seconds later by appellant's automobile, and that he never saw appellees' brake lights or turn signals before the accident. The officer testified also that he recognized appellees' automobile having stopped it two days earlier for defective brake lights and turn signals. Another policeman testified that the turn signals and brake lights did not work after the accident.
At the close of testimony, the lower court directed verdicts against appellant on the issue of liability, ruling that appellees' contributory negligence could not be submitted to the jury because the lack of appropriate signals was not a proximate cause of the accident. We disagree. "'The rules which determine the causal relation between the plaintiff's negligent conduct and the harm resulting to him are the same as those determining the causal relation between the defendant's negligent conduct and resulting harm to others.'" Cebulski v. Lehigh Valley Railroad Co., 441 Pa. 230, 233-34, 272 A.2d 171, 173 (1971), quoting Restatement (Second) of Torts, § 465(2) (1965). In Hamil v. Bashline, 481 Pa. 256, 392 A.2d 1280 (1978), our Supreme Court restated the salient principles of proximate causation:
It is settled in the law that except in rare situations not here involved the mere occurrence of an injury does not prove negligence and that an admittedly negligent act does not necessarily entail liability; rather even when it is established that the defendant breached some duty of care owed the plaintiff, it is incumbent on a plaintiff to establish a causal connection between defendant's conduct and the plaintiff's injury. Stated another way, the defendant's
[ 293 Pa. Super. Page 92]
conduct must be shown to have been the proximate cause of plaintiff's injury . . . . Proximate cause is a term of art denoting the point at which legal responsibility attaches for the harm to another arising out of some act of defendant, . . . and it may be established by evidence that the defendant's negligent act or failure to act was a substantial factor in bringing about the plaintiff's harm . . . . The defendant's negligent conduct may not, however, be ...