The opinion of the court was delivered by: ROSENBERG
This action was brought by Paul L. Stewart, a former employee of the defendant, University of Pittsburgh, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. The action is brought under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq., the Civil Rights Act of 1866, 42 U.S.C. § 1981 and the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. His claim is for injunctive relief for reinstatement to his former position and damages because the defendant deprived him of rights to employment to which he was entitled by law. Primarily, he charges the defendant with racial discrimination against him as an American negro.
At the trial of this case, non-jury, the plaintiff produced a number of witnesses who testified that he held the position of Specialty Counselor Associate in the Methadone Program of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Treatment Program Division. This is part of the Western Psychiatric Institution, associated with all the hospitals in the Medical Center of the University of Pittsburgh.
The methadone center was set up particularly for the treatment of drug addiction victims and it dispensed methadone in an effort to counteract the damage to human beings who were addicted to the use of heroin. The center is part of the Psychiatric Institute and had Dr. Usim Odim as the head of the Drug Abuse Program. This center was under the supervision of Dr. John Wolford who was the Director of Community Mental Health Center and the Director of Adult Services. Both had the power to hire and fire, but Dr. Odim was entrusted with the orderly functioning of the center and was charged with control, discipline, direction and guidance of employees and was responsible for their accomplishments in the center. Additionally, and interconnected with the assignment of employment, was Dr. Bishop, subsequently married and now Dr. Bishop Coffey. She was and is an assistant to the Chancellor of the University of Pittsburgh and charged with the implementation of the Affirmative Action Program and employment of all the facilities. When transfers were to be made from one part of the University setup to another, Dr. Coffey would be the appropriate source through whom such activities were processed. Transfers were made only after special application by an individual in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Institute.
On another occasion Dr. Odim refused to let the plaintiff speak at a symposium and that was reversed by Dr. Wolford. On another occasion, Dr. Odim called the plaintiff into his office and upbraided him for something that he did not explain was the cause for being called into the office.
The defendant in its testimony produced evidence that Dr. Odim was a Nigerian by birth and a psychiatrist; that he had the training which fitted him for the position which he held; that he was responsible for the results which the center was required to produce and responsible for employee functioning; that he was obviously a black man and that he had no prejudice against the plaintiff at any time; that he had consulted with Dr. Wolford in regard to all matters and particularly that of the plaintiff so far as any action that was taken by him; that his disciplining of the plaintiff was a part of his duties; that the entire staff comprises approximately 75% black employees; that Dr. Odim did not apply any odious names to the plaintiff; that he believed the plaintiff needed a three-day leave of absence for the purpose of getting control of himself; that the question of giving the plaintiff a 60-day leave of absence came up with Dr. Wolford and that this was an effort to stabilize the plaintiff; that the plaintiff took all of this in bad mood and showed his resentment; that the question of transfer of the plaintiff from the center to another division in the hospital would be looked into if the plaintiff desired it; that this occurred subsequently with Dr. Coffey and Mr. Burr, counsel for the University; Mr. Phillip Brown, representative of Human Resources and Mr. Clifford Cooper, attorney for the plaintiff present. The plaintiff was also present and this was the way the meeting ended with action to be decided by the plaintiff; but from that time on the defendant heard nothing from the plaintiff. The evidence shows that if the plaintiff had desired a transfer, it was incumbent upon him to fill out the form which Dr. Coffey would have provided, and when a suitable place could be found for the plaintiff, it would be done.
Dr. Coffey is also of the black race. Dr. Coffey testified that there was no animosity, no prejudice and no partiality shown against the plaintiff; that he had these rights and could claim them whenever he wished but he never claimed them, especially when he had the right to do so in August. Dr. Coffey testified that the plaintiff was never dismissed by the University or the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic; but that after three months' absence on the plaintiff's work record, the University's internal audit had the plaintiff's name stricken from the payroll. That did not, however, necessarily mean that the plaintiff could not come back and make an application through Dr. Coffey subsequently. Dr. Coffey testified that the plaintiff was never dismissed as an employee.
Dr. Coffey's assertion was clarified by a letter written by the assistant counsel for the University, Attorney Keith Burr to the plaintiff indicating that there was no promise of transfer but that Dr. Coffey and Mr. Burr would use their best efforts to discover a possible transfer for the plaintiff. The evidence of the defendant is that the plaintiff never took advantage of his right to make such application for transfer or for reinstatement, since after October 14th he was required to contact Mr. Brown for reinstatement. The plaintiff did not rebut this evidence.
The issue presented by the parties here is rather simple. Was racial discrimination practiced to the extent that would have compelled the plaintiff to remove himself from the position as a matter for his own protection, safety, or even comfort and benefit? While it may be true that there can be antagonisms between one white person and another white person, it is equally true that there can be antagonisms between one black person and another black person. And it very well could be that Dr. Odim, a Nigerian, black psychiatrist, felt himself superior to the plaintiff. It could as well be true that the plaintiff resented Dr. Odim's superiority and believed that he as an American negro was equally as good as a Nigerian black man, even a psychiatrist. Such feelings could, of course, provide for discriminatory actions by the superior power, Dr. Odim here, against the inferior individual the plaintiff, Paul Stewart.
It was this particular sense of antagonism that I looked for in the case and attempted to extract from all the evidence as it was presented. I could not find any more prejudice on the part of Dr. Odim against the plaintiff as an American negro than I could find against the other 15 of 20 staff members who were also American negro employees. There was no evidence whatsoever that Dr. Odim had any prejudice against any other of these American negroes; and this is good evidence that he did not particularly select the plaintiff for a victim of color prejudice.
It is my belief that the plaintiff showed as much antipathy against Dr. Odim as Dr. Odim might have showed against him, and that Dr. Odim did not accept any breach of discipline from the plaintiff any more than he might have accepted it from any of the other 70% black American negroes under his authority or for that matter against the other five white employees under his authority.
This conclusion by me is strengthened by the testimony of Dr. Coffey, a black woman, as I stated before. Dr. Coffey was a highly impressive witness, an educator and a person whose demeanor on the stand was convincing. She spoke plainly, simply, both in direct and cross-examination, to the effect that Dr. Odim was not prejudiced against the plaintiff. Dr. Coffey stated that any action on the part of any employees with whom she was associated was definitely not done on the basis of race or color. She testified that the plaintiff would have continued his job if he had returned to work on September 1st, but he failed to do so. Thus, I cannot conclude that he was dismissed. I further conclude that the plaintiff, for whatever reason he did, seemed to have been uninterested in going back to the University and returning to his job or even claiming a transfer. This case does not fall within the principles of law upon which the plaintiff stands.
The plaintiff cites McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. 792, 93 S. Ct. 1817, 36 L. Ed. 2d 668 (1973) as establishing the criteria for a prima facie case of discrimination in employment. The plaintiff's interpretation of this ...