The opinion of the court was delivered by: DITTER
The Secretary has filed untimely
objections to the Magistrate's report. He contends that the Magistrate erred in apparently requiring the introduction of a vocational expert's testimony to support a finding that there are specific sedentary jobs which the plaintiff can perform and that these jobs exist in significant numbers in the national economy. The Secretary also argues that the additional evidence offered by the plaintiff is cumulative and does not warrant a remand. After a careful review of the entire record, I have concluded that the Secretary's objections are without merit.
The plaintiff is a 52 year old high school graduate who since 1947 has been employed as a farm laborer, can packer, machine loader in a wool factory, cab driver, press operator and mechanic (Tr. 47-58).
From 1959 until 1970 he was employed by the City of Philadelphia as a truck mechanic in the sanitation department (Tr. 58-59). In 1970, he was promoted to the position of a road tester of vehicles for the police department (Tr. 59-60). In August of 1977, while driving to Philadelphia from Richmond, he passed out behind the wheel of his car (Tr. 61, 134). He was rushed to Prince George's County Hospital in Cheverly, Maryland, where he became comatose and underwent two generalized seizures (Tr. 134). A brain scan revealed a left occipital infarct (Tr. 133). Tunstall remained in Prince George's Hospital for eight days after the incident and was then transferred to John F. Kennedy Memorial Hospital in Philadelphia where he was released and treated on an outpatient basis (Tr. 62). He has not worked since that time (Tr. 147).
The plaintiff filed an application for disability insurance benefits on November 18, 1977, claiming disability as of August 16, 1977, due to a "heart attack" (Tr. 81-84). The initial application was denied by a disability examiner (Tr. 88-89) as was a subsequent request for reconsideration (Tr. 86). The claim was then considered de novo by an ALJ before whom plaintiff and counsel appeared on March 14, 1979. The medical evidence considered by the ALJ consisted of plaintiff's records from Prince George's and John F. Kennedy Hospitals as well as reports by Drs. Ravi Sapra and Harry Shubin. Dr. Sapra examined the plaintiff to ascertain the cause of his complaints of abdominal pain. He concluded that there was no organic basis for the alleged stomach problems (Tr. 146). By contrast, Dr. Shubin diagnosed the plaintiff as suffering from post cerebral infarction with residual weakness and organic brain syndrome; chronic obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disease with pulmonary insufficiency; post rheumatic fever, mitral stenosis, and aortic insufficiency; chronic liver disease cirrhosis/hepatitis; and emotional instability with impotence (Tr. 147-49). On the basis of this diagnosis, Dr. Shubin concluded that the plaintiff "meets the requirements by equivalences of total and permanent disability." (Tr. 149).
With respect to his symptoms, Tunstall testified that approximately two or three times a week he has a dizzy spell and blacks out (Tr. 64-65). He further testified that he has shortness of breath which precludes his walking more than a couple of blocks (Tr. 66) and that he tires very easily (Tr. 72-73). Finally, he stated he suffers from severe pain in the pit of the stomach (Tr. 69-70) and that he is incapable of tolerating extremes of cold and heat (Tr. 74-75).
Based upon this evidence, the ALJ concluded "(t)he medical evidence establishes that the claimant has mitral stenosis, past embolic infarction and obstructive-restrictive disease" and "is unable to perform his past jobs as automobile mechanic or equipment inspector" (Tr. 22). However, the ALJ then found that the plaintiff retains the residual functional capacity for sedentary labor. Id. Having made this finding, he correlated Tunstall's capacity for sedentary work with the factors of age, education, and previous work experience, as mandated by the vocational rules found in 20 C.F.R. § 404, Subpart P, Appendix 2 §§ 200.00 et seq., and determined that Tunstall is not disabled within the meaning of the Social Security Act.
The Magistrate determined that the ALJ's finding of capacity to engage in sedentary labor was not supported by substantial evidence and could not, therefore, sustain a finding of nondisability. Specifically, the Magistrate pointed to the lack of evidence concerning plaintiff's physical and mental capacity to perform particular jobs which exist in the national economy and observed that "(although) there is no per se rule that a vocational expert's evaluation is necessary, a general statement that plaintiff can engage in sedentary work does not satisfy the substantial evidence test where plaintiff, being unable to return to his former employment, has established a prima facie case of disability." Report-Recommendation at 5 (Docket No. 9).
The Secretary has objected to this portion of the Magistrate's report insofar as it seemingly requires a finding of nondisability to be supported by expert vocational testimony that (1) there are specific sedentary jobs which plaintiff can perform and (2) such jobs exist in the national economy. It is contended that the vocational rules which were applied by the ALJ in this case take administrative notice of the existence of jobs which are available in the national economy. Thus, when a finding of nondisability can be made by correlating the criteria set forth in the rules with the ALJ's findings of fact, it need not be supported by the testimony of a vocational expert.
The Secretary's position is undoubtedly correct as an abstract statement of law. See 20 C.F.R. § 404, Subpart P, Appendix 2 § 200.00(b); Messner v. Califano, 496 F. Supp. 1007, 1010-11 (E.D.Pa.1980). However, it begs the dispositive question of whether the ALJ's finding that Tunstall is capable of engaging in sedentary labor is supported by substantial evidence.
If it is not, the ALJ's finding of nondisability premised upon the application of vocational rules 201.15 and 201.16 cannot be sustained on review. Rich v. Harris, 503 F. Supp. 1041, 1043 (E.D.Pa.1980). Ralls v. Harris, No. 78-4055, slip op. at 3-4 (E.D.Pa. Nov. 4, 1980).
A careful review of the record convinces me that the ALJ's finding that Tunstall is capable of performing sedentary labor is not supported by substantial evidence. There is no question that the plaintiff met his burden of showing that he is unable to return to his former occupation as an equipment tester and mechanic. The ALJ so found and this finding is clearly supported by the evidence. See Rossi v. Califano, 602 F.2d 55, 57 (3d Cir. 1979). It was then incumbent upon the Secretary to show, by competent medical evidence, that the plaintiff is able to engage in some alternative means of employment. Dobrowolsky v. Califano, 606 F.2d 403, 410 (3d Cir. 1979). The ALJ's finding that Tunstall is physically capable of performing sedentary labor was premised upon two factors that his testimony concerning his daily activities was inconsistent with his complaints of weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and occasional blackouts and upon the report by Dr. Sapra indicating that there exists no organic basis for the plaintiff's alleged stomach problems. Neither of these considerations, either separately or in conjunction, is sufficient to sustain the ALJ's finding.
It is well settled that the capacity to perform sporadic, intermittent, or transitory activities does not constitute ability to engage in substantial gainful activity under the Social Security Act. Ralls v. Harris, supra, slip op. at 7-8; Barats v. Weinberger, 383 F. Supp. 276, 284 (E.D.Pa.1974). Indeed, as the Court of Appeals recently noted "(the claimant's) sporadic and transitory activities may demonstrate not his ability but his inability to engage in substantial gainful activity." Smith v. Califano, 637 F.2d 968, 972 (3d Cir. 1981), quoting Willem v. Richardson, 490 F.2d 1247, 1249 n. 4 (8th Cir. 1974), and Wilson v. Richardson, 455 F.2d 304, 307 (4th Cir. 1972). Here, Tunstall's daily routine is in no way inconsistent with that of a man suffering from the physical infirmities of which he complains. If anything, it comports with the routine of a person capable of nothing more than a short walk down the street.
The ALJ also premised his finding upon Dr. Sapra's conclusion that there exists no organic basis for plaintiff's complaints of stomach pain. In so doing, he ignored the comprehensive report submitted by Dr. Shubin who diagnosed the plaintiff as suffering from a wide variety of ailments and opined that he is totally and completely disabled. It is well settled in this circuit that "the special nature of proceedings for disability benefits dictates extra care on the part of the agency in developing an administrative ...