from Japan were being sold in the United States at less than fair value; (2) an industry in the United States was being injured by reason of such sales; (3) dumping had thus occurred in violation of the 1921 Antidumping Act; and (4) dumping duties had been assessed against specific importers (on the Customs Form 29). The time frames of these documents are within the frame of reference of plaintiffs' claims. However, all of these documents were excluded: (1) as hearsay and not admissible under the relevant exception to the hearsay rule (F.R.E. 803(8)(C)); (2) as irrelevant to the present case; and (3) as at all events excludable under F.R.E. 403 on the grounds that any minimal probative value the documents may have had was far outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, and misleading the jury, and by considerations of undue delay, waste of time, and needless presentation of cumulative evidence.
The second category of evidence addressed in the Public Records Opinion was composed of documents, including certain findings, promulgated by the U.S. Tariff Commission and its successor, the U.S. International Trade Commission (I.T.C.), and by the Secretaries of Labor and Commerce under §§ 301(b)(1) and (c)(1) and (2) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 and §§ 201(b) and 221 of the Trade Act of 1974. These documents contained various findings of injury to United States industry. All of the documents were excluded as hearsay, as irrelevant, and under F.R.E. 403.
Third, the Public Records Opinion dealt with certain purported findings and related documents arising out of proceedings in two cases before the Japanese Fair Trade Commission (JFTC). The first was a 1957 case brought against the Home Electric Appliance Market Stabilization Council, some of whose members are defendants in this action, alleging industry-wide price fixing. The second case, brought in 1967, alleged retail price maintenance against defendant MEI. In plaintiffs' submission, these materials are probative of the role of various defendants in the alleged home market aspects of the "unitary" conspiracy. However, all of them were excluded as hearsay and inadmissible under the 803(8) (C) exception to the hearsay rule. Moreover, certain "decisions" of the JFTC were also excluded as inadmissible under F.R.E. 408 and 410.
Plaintiffs also sought admission under F.R.E. 803(8)(C) of the findings of Judge A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., our predecessor in this case, found at 402 F. Supp. 262 (E.D.Pa.1975), regarding personal jurisdiction and venue. However, we held that Judge Higginbotham's findings did not come within the ambit of Rule 803(8)(C) and that they were therefore inadmissible.
Finally, we dealt in the Public Records Opinion with certain statistical data from the statistical office of the United Nations and a report of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. We found this data, which is in part technological (relating to electronic components) and in part statistical (relating to television production figures of various countries), to be admissible.
The second opinion in our evidentiary trilogy was entitled Admissibility of Materials Relating to Activities in Japan, PTO 295, 505 F. Supp. 1190 (filed September 29, 1980), 6 Fed.Evid.Rep. 1329 (cited herein as Japanese Materials Evidentiary Opinion). That opinion dealt with the admissibility of three major groups of documents: (1) materials seized by the JFTC in "raids" on the offices of several of the defendants here who were respondents in the Six Company Case; (2) testimony and statements or "protocols" given by officials of the respondent companies during the course of the JFTC proceedings in the Six Company Case; and (3) materials produced in discovery from the files of the Japanese defendants and others relating to activities in Japan of Japanese manufacturers of consumer electronic products or of associations of manufacturers. Our rulings were all predicated on either Article VIII (hearsay) or Article IX (authentication) of the Federal Rules of Evidence.
We first dealt with the diaries or notebooks of officials of several of the Japanese defendants, which were said to contain evidence of the alleged conspiracy.
We next considered the admissibility of a number of internal memoranda of certain of the defendants,
minutes of certain EIAJ officers' meetings, supposed minutes of the TV Export Council meetings, and the so-called Japan Victor document, allegedly emanating from the EIAJ Statistics Committee. We held all of these documents to be hearsay and inadmissible under any of the exceptions to the hearsay rule. As we have noted, we also considered the admissibility of the formal testimony of executives of the Japanese companies before the JFTC, as well as of the protocols given by them to the JFTC investigators. We held the JFTC testimony admissible against the defendants in the "Six-Company Case" only, except for any so-called "export" or "war-chesting" references, which we held with minor exceptions to be inadmissible. We held that the protocols were admissible against the employer of the maker of the protocol only.
In the third opinion in our evidentiary trilogy, entitled Admissibility of Expert Testimony, PTO 301, 505 F. Supp. 1313 (filed December 10, 1980) (cited herein as Expert Testimony Opinion) we considered the admissibility of the opinions of five of the plaintiffs' expert witnesses, as set forth in compendious reports prepared by those experts. The reports at issue were: (1) "Economic Study of the Japanese Television Industry," by Dr. Horace J. DePodwin, Dr. David Schwartzman, and Marcio Teixeira of Horace J. DePodwin Associates, Inc., an economic consulting firm (the DePodwin Report); (2) "The Pervasive Use of Collusive and Company Group (Keiretsu) Activities in Achieving the Rapid Increase of Japanese Exports of Television Receivers to the United States," by Professor Kozo Yamamura, Chairman, Japan Studies Program and Professor of Economics and East Asian Studies at the University of Washington (the Yamamura Report); (3) "Economic Analysis of Evidence Relating to Japanese Electronic Products Antitrust Litigation," by Stanley Nehmer of Economic Consulting Services, Inc. (the Nehmer Report); (4) "The Impact of Japanese Financial and Employment Practices on Japanese Production, Marketing, and Price Behavior," by Professor Gary R. Saxonhouse, Professor of Economics, University of Michigan (the Saxonhouse Report); and (5) "Vertical Restraint by Japanese Television Manufacturers: Anticompetitive Effects," by Professor John Owen Haley, Associate Professor of Law at the University of Washington (the Haley Report).
We did not undertake to rule upon the admissibility of these experts' reports qua reports nor upon the admissibility of all of the opinions expressed in their reports. Rather, we culled from the reports the salient opinions of the experts with possible bearing upon the outcome of the motions for summary judgment. In terms of methodology, each of the experts had reviewed the documentary materials provided him by plaintiffs' counsel, drawn upon his economic knowledge, and then in essence concluded that defendants were engaged in precisely the conspiracy posited by plaintiffs.
In our Expert Testimony Opinion, we excluded the great bulk of these expert opinions, holding admissible only background materials relating to the structure of the Japanese market, including its trade barriers, the technological development of the consumer electronic products industry, and basic economic principles and methodology.
We reserved our ruling on one calculation of price differentials between the Japanese and American market presented in Part V of the DePodwin Report. See Expert Testimony Opinion 505 F. Supp. 1313 at 1348. Most of the remaining material is attacked by defendants on relevancy grounds, and is discussed in the pertinent sections, infra.
Our Expert Testimony Opinion was two-pronged. To summarize, we first found that most of the experts' crucial opinions, notably those which concluded that defendants in this action were acting collusively, were so pervaded by reliance upon untrustworthy materials, including materials excluded from evidence in our two previous evidentiary opinions, as to render them inadmissible under F.R.E. 703. In addition, we concluded that the experts, by providing a narrative factual description and summary of the evidence before the court, and drawing (factual) conclusions upon which they in turn founded their opinions, were not utilizing any expertise in a manner helpful to the jury under F.R.E. 702, but were instead acting not as economists but as conspiracyologists engaged in inadmissible "oath-helping."
Our discussion at this juncture of the numerous documents and opinions which we have excluded from evidence is important because of the necessity for perspective. First, the excluded evidence includes the most important documents in plaintiffs' original submissions and, in a very real sense, an evaluation of the plaintiffs' case is aided by an understanding of the extent to which its original integral parts are now missing. Second, because of the importance of the excluded documents, we may have occasion from time to time to observe whether the outcome would have been different had the documents not been excluded. Third, the reason for the exclusion in the Japanese Materials Evidentiary Opinion of the most critical of these documents lack of foundation reflects upon the integrity of plaintiffs' conspiracy case, a subject upon which we will comment further infra.
Perhaps the most graphic description of the impact on plaintiffs' case of our trilogy of evidentiary opinions comes from analysis of a portion of Plaintiffs' Memorandum in Reply to the Motions for Summary Judgment of Certain Defendants,
Matsushita Defendants, and Sears, Roebuck & Co. (filed April 2, 1979), 8 1/2 years after the filing of the NUE action. In Part III.B. of that memorandum the plaintiffs purported to review the evidence of the overall combination and conspiracy, advancing the view that the defendants had completely failed to rebut plaintiffs' evidence. The major categories of evidence which plaintiffs advanced at that time were:
1. Data on the early development of the Japanese electronics industry;