No. 2440 October Term 1978 Appeal from Judgment of Sentence in the Court of Common Pleas of Phila. County, Trial Div., Criminal Sect., Nos. 1952, 1954, 1956 Aug. Term 1977.
Malcolm W. Berkowitz, Philadelphia, for appellant.
Ellen Mattleman, Assistant District Attorney, Philadelphia, for Commonwealth, appellee.
Spaeth, Brosky and Van der Voort, JJ. Van der Voort, J., notes his dissent.
[ 283 Pa. Super. Page 490]
This is an appeal from judgments of sentence for robbery, criminal conspiracy, and possession of an instrument of crime.
On July 19, 1977, at approximately 9:30 a. m., Marcelo's Pharmacy in Philadelphia was robbed by two armed men. At least two hundred dollars was stolen, as well as quantities of dilaudid, percodan, desoxyn, quaalude, and valium. A principal issue at trial was whether appellant was one of the robbers.
Edmund Marcelo testified that appellant and one Daniel Cronin were the robbers. He also testified that several days after the robbery, he had identified appellant's photograph in a photo array, and that on August 17, 1977, he had identified appellant in a line-up. Marcelo said that during the robbery he was able to observe appellant for three minutes at a distance of three feet in good lighting while appellant was holding a gun on him, and that he remembered appellant's clothing and physical characteristics.
James Dunlevy, a postman, testified as follows. He walked into Marcelo's Pharmacy at the time of the robbery and was approached by Cronin, who pointed a silver revolver at his head and conducted him to the rear of the store, where he was forced to lie on the floor facing the wall. He remained in that position for five to six minutes until the robbery was over and the robbers had fled. During the robbery, Dunlevy saw only Cronin and one of Marcelo's children; he was therefore unable to identify appellant as one of the robbers. Several months after the robbery, Dunlevy identified Cronin's photograph and a photograph of the revolver used by Cronin.
[ 283 Pa. Super. Page 491]
No other eyewitnesses to the robbery testified.*fn1 Detective McNamee testified to the investigation that occurred immediately after the robbery. Detectives Henwood and Cashman testified to subsequent investigations that occurred, including their observation of appellant on the evening of the robbery wearing a full beard and mustache, and the search of appellant's residence on July 21, 1977, which search uncovered no incriminating evidence. Detective Caruso testified that on August 5, 1977, appellant was arrested when he went to a hospital in Bucks County to fill a drug prescription, and that when arrested, appellant was clean-shaven. Detective Margulis testified to the circumstances surrounding Marcelo's line-up identification of appellant.
Of appellant's numerous arguments in support of a new trial, we need address but one.*fn2
[ 283 Pa. Super. Page 492]
During his cross-examination of James Dunlevy, the postman who walked into the pharmacy at the time of the robbery, appellant's counsel asked that the photograph of Cronin's revolver, which Dunlevy had been shown after the robbery, be produced. The district attorney said that the photograph was not in his possession, but the court stated that it should be produced. The next day the district attorney called to the stand Officer Loub of the Collingswood, New Jersey, Police Department. Over appellant's objection, the officer was permitted to testify as follows. On November 5, 1977, he stopped a motorist, who was later identified as Cronin, because his car was carrying an invalid inspection sticker. Cronin was the only person in the car. When asked for identification, Cronin produced a Pennsylvania operator's license and a New Jersey car registration, both in the name of Richard Noble. Loub then asked for additional identification, explaining to Cronin that he wished to run a check to learn if Richard Noble had a revoked New Jersey operator's license. When Cronin began to reach into a gym bag that was inside the car, Loub told him to remove his hand from the bag and to face him. Cronin, however, continued to look over his shoulder to see Loub's position. Loub became alarmed and placed his hand on Cronin's back, saying, "Take your hands out of the bag." Cronin said he ...