The opinion of the court was delivered by: SNYDER
Before the Court is an application of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) for an order to require the University of Pittsburgh (University) to comply with the subpoena duces tecum served upon it by the EEOC during its investigation of a charge of unlawful discrimination against female faculty employees with respect to wages and conditions of employment.
The charge filed July 6, 1977 alleged:
"The University of Pittsburgh has discriminated, and is still discriminating, against women faculty employees by paying them lower monthly salaries than the ones paid to male faculty employees. Thus, the discrimination is based upon sex. Consequently, this action of the University of Pittsburgh amounts to an unlawful employment practice, and as such, is prohibited by the provisions of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as amended. Inasmuch as several fringe benefits are based upon or linked with salary, by paying women faculty employees lower monthly salaries than the ones paid to male faculty employees, the University of Pittsburgh is also guilty of committing an unlawful employment practice over other conditions of employment. This, too, constitutes discrimination based upon sex and is therefore prohibited by provisions of Title VII of the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 as amended."
This charge was prepared and signed by Margaret F. Carroll, Acting Executive Director of the American Nurses' Association (ANA). Attached to the charge was an EEOC Form 151, Third Party Certification of Charge, which gave the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of some ANA members aggrieved by the allegedly discriminatory conduct.
On August 12, 1977, the Pittsburgh District Office of the EEOC, pursuant to Section 706(c) of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-5(c), referred the charge to the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission. ANA then requested the Commission to terminate processing the charge, and the Commission agreed to do so on August 12th. The EEOC thereupon re-assumed jurisdiction over the charge, and the University was notified on August 17, 1977. EEOC Compliance Officer, Joel Pretz, attempted to secure an early conciliation of the charge but was unable to do so. As a part of the investigation, a letter was sent to the University on June 13, 1978, requesting information; on July 12, 1978, counsel for the University informed the EEOC that it would not voluntarily produce the information and that the EEOC would have to issue a subpoena.
On August 1, 1978, a subpoena was issued, signed by the EEOC's District Director, requiring the University to produce the following:
"1. Produce a list of all assistant instructors, instructors, assistant professors, associate professors and professors in the Schools of Nursing, Pharmacy, Health Related Professions, and Social Work. For each, indicate sex, date of hire, date of termination, (if applicable), academic degree held, whether tenured or non-tenured, whether part-time or full-time, and position(s) held during the period June 1975 to present. Additionally, indicate each aforesaid employee's initial salary and present salary and length of term of annual contract of each; i. e., ten months, twelve months, etc.
2. Produce the written/printed functional job descriptions and all written/printed materials describing all duties and job/position requirements of all assistant instructors, instructors, assistant professors, associate professors, and professors in each of the aforesaid schools.
3. Produce the written/printed qualifications and requirements necessary to perform the duties of each position, occupied by assistant instructors, instructors, assistant professors, associate professors, and professors in each of the aforesaid schools.
If the records do not exist in the form requested in Item 1 above, production of the information therein requested as most substantively provides the Commission with that information will be accepted as compliance."
The University did not produce the information, but filed a petition with the EEOC seeking revocation of the subpoena on August 3, 1978. On December 22, 1978, the EEOC entered its determination that the subpoena would not be revoked and established January 15, 1979, as the date of production of documents. The University advised the EEOC that it would not comply with the determination.
On November 19, 1979, the EEOC filed the present action with this Court seeking enforcement of the subpoena duces tecum pursuant to Section 710 of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-9. Attached to the application was the affidavit of Eugene V. Nelson, EEOC District Director, relating the above facts based on his personal knowledge and review of the EEOC's investigative file, entitled "American Nurses Association v. University of Pittsburgh, Charge No. 034-771609". This Court, on the same day as the application was received, entered an order directing the University to appear on December 12, 1979, to show cause why the subpoena should not be enforced. At the University's request, this hearing was continued to provide the University an opportunity to file an answer and a reply brief. An answer and counterclaim was filed on January 16, 1980 by the University, denying that it is legally required to produce any of the evidence requested by the subpoena.
The University offered numerous defenses:
2. It alleged that disclosure would result in an unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the University's employees.
3. It alleged that the information would be used only to develop comparative evidence of the University's employment practices and would not further any legitimate EEOC inquiry, thus resulting in direct, immediate, substantial ...