The opinion of the court was delivered by: WEBER
This is an action for damages by the plaintiffs under §§ 102 and 609 of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act [LMRDA] [ 29 U.S.C. §§ 412 and 529] for infringement of plaintiffs' membership equality, freedom of speech and due process rights found in Title I of the Act, §§ 101(a)(1), (2) and (5), [ 29 U.S.C. §§ 411(a)(1), (2) and (5)]. The plaintiffs originally sought injunctive relief and compensatory damages. The request for injunctive relief was denied upon consideration of defendants' motion for partial summary judgment. Collins v. Pennsylvania Tel. Union, Local No. 1944, 418 F. Supp. 50 [W.D.Pa.1976]. Defendants have now moved for summary judgment as to all remaining issues before the court. Plaintiffs oppose this motion.
This lawsuit arose as the result of the alleged wrongful dismissal of local union members from their elective office. Frances Collins and Helen Preston were vice-president and treasurer, respectively, of their local union. Both of these plaintiffs were removed from office by the International Vice-President after a hearing on charges alleging violations of the union constitution while in office. The decision of the union's International Vice-President barred them from seeking union office for two years. The other plaintiffs join in the complaint on the grounds that the removal of Collins and Preston from office deprived rank and file members of their rights as union members under § 101.
As this court noted in its opinion denying injunctive relief, it is well settled in this circuit that the LMRDA protects the union-member relationship, not the union-officer or union-employee relationship. Harrison v. Local 54 of American Federation of State, 518 F.2d 1276 [3d Cir. 1975] cert. denied 423 U.S. 1042, 96 S. Ct. 764, 46 L. Ed. 2d 631 ; Martire v. Laborers' Union 1058, 410 F.2d 32 [3d Cir. 1969], cert. denied 396 U.S. 903, 90 S. Ct. 216, 24 L. Ed. 2d 179 ; Sheridan v. United Brotherhood of Carpenters, etc., 306 F.2d 152 [3d Cir. 1962]. However, in opposition to defendants' motion, plaintiffs submit that, aside from the ruling of the court that plaintiffs are not afforded a remedy under § 101(a)(5) of the Act by reason of their removal from office, part of the penalty imposed on plaintiffs Collins and Preston by the union, which barred them from holding office for two years, is a deprivation of a right of union membership which affords the plaintiffs a remedy. Although the defendants refer to the union decisions as barring Collins and Preston from representing the union membership for a two year period, they dwell only on the "removal from office" aspect of the sanctions imposed. Defendants fail to note that in fact the plaintiffs Collins and Preston were prohibited from running for or holding office for the two year period. This fact is not disputed by the defendants.
With respect to those claims made by plaintiff union members in Count I of the complaints, we find a factual situation similar to the present one in a case not cited by either of the parties, Schonfeld v. Penza, 477 F.2d 899 [2d Cir. 1973]. In Schonfeld, the secretary-treasurer [Schonfeld] of a district council consisting of a group of locals of the International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades, brought an action to restrain members of the district council trial board and the international president from enforcing a decision of the trial board removing Schonfeld from office and declaring him ineligible for union office for five years due to acts in violation of the constitution and by-laws of the International. In a related action [referred to as the "Schwartz action"], consolidated with the Schonfeld action, rank and file members of the locals sought to restrain the punishment of Schonfeld for his alleged union crimes. The district court granted the injunctive relief in both actions on the basis that Schonfeld's removal and disqualification for re-election was an interference with the rights of members of the locals "to choose their own representatives", 29 U.S.C. § 401(a), "to nominate candidates", 29 U.S.C. § 411(a)(1), "to vote in elections", id. and "to express any views, arguments, or opinions." 29 U.S.C. § 411(a)(2).
The Second Circuit disagreed with the district court in respect to jurisdiction of the Schwartz action insofar as it challenged Schonfeld's removal from office and ineligibility to run for future office.
"Title IV of the LMRDA, 29 U.S.C. § 481 et seq., governs the election of union officers and requires that union members have 'a reasonable opportunity . . . for the nomination of candidates . .. and . . . the right to vote for or otherwise support the candidate . . . of [their] choice.' 29 U.S.C. § 481(e). The union member's remedy for Title IV violations, following exhaustion of intraunion remedies, is to file a complaint with the Secretary of Labor, 29 U.S.C. § 482(a), who in turn may then seek relief in the federal courts upon finding or probable cause to believe Title IV has been violated." 477 F.2d at 902.
In Schonfeld, the rank and file members' Complaint relied on Title I and not Title IV of the LMRDA. The plaintiffs had failed to exhaust union remedies and file a complaint with the Secretary of Labor. In Calhoon v. Harvey,1 379 U.S. 134, 85 S. Ct. 292, 13 L. Ed. 2d 190  the Supreme Court held that Title I rights are "no more than a command that members and classes of members shall not be discriminated against in their right to nominate." 379 U.S. at 139, 85 S. Ct. at 295 [emphasis added]. Schonfeld's exclusion from office eligibility did not affect or infringe on the "equal rights" of the complaining union members in the Schwartz action since they were not personally discriminated against. They had the same right as any other union member to nominate and elect any eligible candidate. To this extent, the Circuit Court found the Schwartz action "indistinguishable from Calhoon." 477 F.2d at 903, and without more, would have reversed the district court. However, the Complaint also alleged that the removal of Schonfeld and the restrictions on his subsequent eligibility constituted a form of intimidation of the membership and of their duly elected officers and amounted to reprisals for efforts of the plaintiffs in implementing and advocating change in the union structure and procedures. Prima facie, these additional allegations raised the question of whether the sanctions imposed on Schonfeld infringed on the rights of other union members protected under § 101(a)(2).
In Count I of the Complaint in the present action, plaintiff union members also allege that the defendants' conduct in removing plaintiffs Preston and Collins from office and their subsequent restrictions on eligibility for union office "constituted a veiled form of intimidation of and reprisals against the entire membership and of the duly elected officials for their efforts to advocate and seek changes in policy" (Complaint, par. 27) and thereby infringed upon the free speech and association rights of the members. Therefore, it would appear that a cause of action under the Act has been stated here since rights of free speech and of association -- as opposed to the rights of voting and election -- of union members may have been invaded by the actions of the international officers, the requirement of initial appeal to the Secretary under Title IV being inapplicable. Schonfeld v. Penza, supra.
While Schonfeld made it clear that free speech rights of union members are not threatened or infringed every time a political dispute occurs in the union and dissident members interpret some action by union officials as a threat, the mere appendage of free speech allegations to a complaint is not sufficient to take the case out of Title IV's requirements as interpreted by Calhoon. However, where it is established by the record, as in Schonfeld, that the action of the union administration is part of an established and deliberate policy to suppress dissent, then a Title I claim is made out.
"The competing values between Title I rights and Title IV procedural requirements are best reconciled, in our opinion, by limiting initial federal court intervention to cases where union action abridging both Title I and Title IV can be fairly said, as a result of established union history or articulated policy, to be part of a purposeful and deliberate attempt by union officials to suppress dissent within the union [citations omitted]. We think that the allegations in the complaints here were sufficient to meet this test." 477 F.2d at 904.