The Line of Commerce
By agreement of the parties the line of commerce in this case within the meaning of Sec. 7 of the Clayton Act is the manufacture and sale of printing and fine paper for the purpose of measuring the effects of the acquisitions challenged in this litigation. The term "printing and fine paper" includes coated and uncoated book papers, coated and uncoated printing papers, offset papers, text and cover papers, sulphite bond papers, rag or cotton content papers, mimeograph and duplication papers, onionskin, ledger papers and bristols.
Printing and fine paper is principally sold by mills to book and magazine publishers, and by paper merchants to commercial printers and lithographers, communication centers, stationers, insurance companies, plants, institutions and schools having inhouse printing and duplicating operations, and by mills to greeting card and envelope manufacturers and other converters.
In the context of this case Hammermill is a manufacturer or "supplying firm", and Western and Carter Rice are paper merchants or "purchasing firms".
Hammermill Paper Company
Hammermill was founded in 1898. It produces printing and fine papers at mills located in Oswego, New York; Lock Haven, Pennsylvania; Erie, Pennsylvania; Hamilton, Ohio; Watervliet, Michigan; West Springfield, Massachusetts; Turners Falls, Massachusetts; and Woronoco, Massachusetts. Hammermill is also a one-third owner of a printing and fine paper mill located in Hoquiam, Washington, and is responsible for selling its entire production.
Among the 20 leading manufacturers of printing and fine papers, Hammermill ranked sixth in total United States tonnage and share of the industry in 1967, its share being 4.98%.
In 1966 it ranked fifth with 5.07% of total United States shipments; in 1970 it ranked seventh with 4.29%, and in 1971 it ranked sixth with 4.4%.
However, in the line of fine paper or writing paper, including rag or cotton content papers, ledger papers, and sulphite bond papers, it is the world's largest producer, accounting for 9.5% of United States shipments in 1967.
Hammermill's share of the major segments of the printing and fine paper line for 1967 are:
Uncoated book paper 5.0%
Coated paper 2.6%
Fine paper 9.5%
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