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COMMONWEALTH PENNSYLVANIA v. KENNETH PEACOCK (02/18/77)

decided: February 18, 1977.

COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA
v.
KENNETH PEACOCK, APPELLANT



Appeal from the Judgment of Sentence of the Court of Common Pleas, Criminal Trial Division, of Philadelphia County, imposed on Bill of Indictment No. 442, September Session, 1975. No. 986 October Term, 1976.

COUNSEL

John W. Packel, Assistant Public Defender, Philadelphia, for appellant.

Deborah E. Glass and Steven H. Goldblatt, Assistant District Attorneys, Philadelphia, for appellee.

Watkins, President Judge, and Jacobs, Hoffman, Cercone, Price, Van der Voort and Spaeth, JJ. Hoffman, J., files a dissenting opinion, in which Spaeth, J., joins.

Author: Jacobs

[ 246 Pa. Super. Page 213]

The facts in this case are uncontroverted. On August 16, 1975 two Philadelphia police officers, James Cattalo and Harry Marnie were walking down Wolf Street in Philadelphia after working the night shift. Officer Cattalo was wearing his blue policeman's shirt, which was unbuttoned and out of his trousers, his official bluestriped police trousers and his service revolver on his right hip. He did not have his nameplate, badge, blackjack or nightstick. Officer Marnie was dressed in civilian clothes. At approximately 10:15 a. m., as both men proceeded down the street side-by-side, Officer Cattalo felt numerous tugs on his service revolver, brought his right hand down to keep the gun in its holster and yelled "He's got my gun." Officer Marnie, viewing the appellant Kenneth Peacock with his arm between Officer Cattalo's right hip and arm, thereupon proceeded to punch the appellant twice in the head knocking him down. The appellant began kicking his feet and swinging his arms wildly at the officers and yelled "Don't lock me up, I have a wife and four kids." Unable to subdue the appellant, and after telling him he was under arrest, Officer Cattalo kicked the appellant in the chest thereby stopping the kicking and swinging. Appellant was charged with

[ 246 Pa. Super. Page 214]

    attempted theft by unlawful taking or disposition, resisting arrest and two counts of simple assault. The Commonwealth introduced two witnesses, both police officers, who testified, as far as is relevant for the purpose of this appeal, that there was a bar in the vicinity but that they didn't see where the appellant came from. Officer Cattalo testified that the appellant appeared to be drinking but that his wobbly condition could have been from the blows he received, he wasn't sure. He also testified that the appellant appeared "gazy-eyed" and "starry-eyed" but that he did not smell any liquor on his breath. Officer Marnie testified that "he appeared to have something to drink" and that the appellant staggered at detective headquarters. The defendant demurred to the Commonwealth's evidence, rested, and was convicted only of resisting arrest.*fn1 He was sentenced to 18 months probation conditioned on his undergoing psychotherapy. This appeal followed.

Appellant raised a number of allegations of error in his post-trial written motions but argued only one point in his appellate brief. All other points are therefore deemed waived. Commonwealth v. Mitchell, 464 Pa. 117, 346 A.2d 48 (1975); Commonwealth v. Blair, 460 Pa. 31, 331 A.2d 213 (1975); Commonwealth v. Bronaugh, 459 Pa. 634, 331 A.2d 171 (1975). The sole issue thus preserved for this appeal is the propriety of the lower court's refusal to charge the jury in accordance with Commonwealth v. Graves, 461 Pa. 118, 334 A.2d 661 (1975). The appellant contends that sufficient evidence of intoxication was introduced in the Commonwealth's case-in-chief to warrant a Graves instruction. The lower court ruled that insufficient evidence of intoxication was introduced and therefore denied the requested instruction. We agree with the lower court and affirm the judgment of sentence.

[ 246 Pa. Super. Page 215]

Admittedly, at the time the appellant was brought to trial,*fn2 "evidence of intoxication or drugged condition of the defendant [could have been] offered by the defendant whenever it [was] relevant to negative an element of the offense, 18 Pa.C.S. § 308 added by Act of December 6, 1972 (P.L. 1482, No. 334) § 1." Commonwealth v. Graves, 461 Pa. 118, 334 A.2d 661, 665 n. 8 (1975). And it is quite possible that the charge to the jury could be required because of evidence found in the Commonwealth's own case-in-chief. Commonwealth v. Rose, 457 Pa. 380, 389, 321 A.2d 880, 884 (1974). However, before such an instruction can be required "there must be evidence in the case sufficient to place in issue that fact concerning defendant's mental condition." Commonwealth v. Rose, 457 Pa. 380, 389, 321 A.2d 880, 884 (1975). Such evidence is absent in this case. Unlike Commonwealth v. Graves, supra, in which the defendant testified that he had consumed a quart or more of wine and had taken an LSD pill, or Commonwealth v. Haywood, 464 Pa. 226, 346 A.2d 298 (1975) in which a statement was read into evidence in which the defendant stated that he and his friends had consumed "four half-gallons of wine," or Commonwealth v. Rose, supra, in which there was direct testimony that the defendant had been drinking early in the morning and had a blood alcohol content of .24%, the record in this case is devoid of any such evidence indicating that appellant was in fact intoxicated at the time of the incident. The testimony of the two police officers was no more than conjecture and speculation and as such did not require the Graves charge. Commonwealth v. Rose, supra; see, Commonwealth v. Mott, 234 Pa. Super. 52, 334 A.2d 771 (1975) (per Van der Voort J., with two judges concurring), Commonwealth v. Brown, 462 Pa. 578, 342 A.2d 84

[ 246 Pa. Super. Page 216]

(1975); Commonwealth v. Tervalon, 463 Pa. 581, 345 A.2d 671 (1975); Commonwealth v. Bighum, 452 Pa. 554, 307 A.2d 255 (1973). Therefore, because the appellant did not establish the factual foundation for his requested charge, it did not "bear upon an issue in the case" and the trial court properly refused the instruction. ...


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