The opinion of the court was delivered by: BECHTLE
Presently before the Court is defendants' motion for summary judgment, pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P. 56, in this diversity action. Defendants' primary contention is that this is an action for breach of a contract for sale within the meaning of the Uniform Commercial Code, as enacted in Pennsylvania, and that, accordingly, the suit is time-barred by the applicable four-year statute of limitations found at 12A P.S. § 2-725 (1970). For the reasons stated below, the Court agrees with defendants and will grant their motion.
The material facts relevant to this motion, undisputed except as to their legal significance, are as follows: In early 1969, Bechtel Corporation ("Bechtel"), through Bechtel Constructors, Inc. ("Bechtel Constructors"), was engaged by Union Carbide Corporation ("Union Carbide") as general contractor for the construction of a petrochemical complex near Ponce, Puerto Rico. On June 9, 1969, Bechtel Constructors issued an invitation for bids to furnish and install, on a "turnkey" basis, the container handling system at the Union Carbide complex's marine facility. Badrena & Perez, Inc. ("B&P"), submitted its bid on August 15, 1969. That bid anticipated the erection of a large steel structure, to be used in loading and unloading ships, composed of a crane runway, over which would run a crane assembly, and a movable apron extending over the water. Belmont Iron Works ("Belmont"), a division of plaintiff Belmont Industries, Inc., was to design the structure, fabricate the steel for it and deliver the steel to B&P in Puerto Rico. Other subcontractors to B&P were to erect the structure, supply the crane assembly, supply the controls system, sandblast and paint the steel, as well as provide additional work and materials.
At a "pre-award" meeting on January 22, 1970, the proposed contract between Bechtel Constructors and B&P was discussed in detail and B&P was advised shortly thereafter that it was the successful bidder. A subcontract was sent by Bechtel Constructors to B&P on March 23, 1970. On April 16, 1970, B&P sent a proposed sub-subcontract to Belmont. That document provided that Belmont would "supply all steel structures at job site . . ."
for a lump-sum price of $338,420. [Ex. D-78.] Although several letters were subsequently exchanged between B&P and Belmont regarding its terms, Belmont never returned the executed sub-subcontract to B&P. Nevertheless, on the assumption that there was some kind of agreement with B&P, Belmont continued to take actions apparently directed towards fulfillment of that agreement concerning the container handling facility.
In early July, 1970, Belmont advised representatives of B&P, Bechtel and Union Carbide that, due to disagreement over the employment of a consulting engineer, it could not continue to accept design responsibility for the structure. Belmont would thereafter act only as a material supplier, fabricating in accordance with plans and specifications submitted by others. On July 22, 1970, Belmont sent B&P a proposed sub-subcontract pursuant to which Belmont would be obligated "solely to [ sic ] the preparation of shop detail drawings from plans and specifications submitted by others and the fabrications [ sic ] and delivery of structural steel based thereon." [Ex. D-34.] Belmont's compensation was still to be a lump-sum payment of $338,420.
The proposed sub-subcontract was apparently never signed. However, despite the absence of a written contract, Belmont was doing work as a supplier for the project as late as October 26, 1970.
In mid-October, 1970, B&P encountered financial difficulties and asked to be allowed to withdraw from its subcontract with Bechtel. The Bechtel-B&P subcontract was formally terminated on October 24, 1970.
On November 9, 1970, Bechtel sent a letter to Belmont asking Belmont to enter into a contract directly with Bechtel, on a purchase order basis, for the fabrication and delivery of the steel for the container handling facility. The price terms of the proposed contract would be the same as had been agreed between Belmont and B&P. On November 10, 1970, Bechtel informed Belmont by letter that if it would not agree to transfer its original obligation, on the same terms, from B&P to Bechtel, it would be free to make a new proposal pursuant to the open bid request which had been sent to other steel fabricators the previous day. Bechtel and Belmont were unable to reach agreement on a price for the transfer contract. On November 24, 1970, Bechtel entered into an agreement with Owen Steel Company ("Owen") pursuant to which Owen would provide the steel for the container handling facility. Belmont was aware of Bechtel's agreement with Owen by early December, 1970.
Based upon this series of events, Belmont filed a three-count complaint on June 18, 1975. The first count sets forth a claim for breach of contract and requests both compensatory and punitive damages. The second count sets forth a claim for a quantum meruit recovery based on the same agreement alleged in Count I.
The third count of the complaint, which seeks compensatory and punitive damages, alleges that defendants "wilfully and maliciously concealed from the fabricator they selected to replace Belmont, knowledge of Belmont's procurement of the specially manufactured materials. This act of concealment was committed with the intent to, and with the effect of, denying Belmont the opportunity to sell said material to that fabricator."
For purposes of this motion, defendants concede that any contractual obligations which existed ran between Belmont and defendants, rather than Belmont and B&P, and they do not contend at this time that there was no agreement between the parties.
Count II also fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. A quantum meruit action is appropriate to recover the value of services performed and accepted on the basis of a contract for those services which left unspecified what the compensation would be. See Lach v. Fleth, 361 Pa. 340, 348, 64 A.2d 821, 825 (1949). The important point is that recovery is based on the existence of an agreement, express or implied, for the performance of services. We hold here, however, that the contract was one for the sale of goods. Defendants contracted for the purchase of fabricated steel from plaintiff. The price which they agreed to pay was for receipt of the finished goods, not for any work and labor involved in the production of the goods. A quantum meruit recovery is incompatible with the concept of a contract for the sale of goods.
Finally, the Court concurs with defendants that the agreement sued upon here was not a construction contract, which would make the general six-year limitations period for breach of contract applicable. Examination of DeMatteo v. White, 233 Pa.Super. 339, 336 A.2d 355 (1975), and cases cited therein,
makes clear that such a contract is one in which the obligation to furnish materials, if present at all, is merely incidental to the main purpose -- namely, the assembling of the materials into a new, different and completed unit. Belmont clearly had no contractual responsibility here related to the actual building of the container handling facility. It also follows that this is not an action to recover damages for a deficiency in the supervision or observation of construction of an improvement to real property, which would bring into play the twelve-year statute of limitations found at 12 P.S. § 65.1 (Supp. 1976).
This brings us to the central issue of the case concerning the applicability of the four-year statute of limitations for actions for breach of a contract for sale.
There is no question that if that statute of limitations applies here, this contract action may not be maintained.
We also consider it beyond dispute that the fabricated structural steel and accessory items to be furnished by plaintiff under the contract constituted "goods" as that term is defined in 12A P.S. § 2-105(1).
Plaintiff asserts, however, that the design services which it was to provide under the contract take the agreement out of the ambit of the ...