The opinion of the court was delivered by: WEBER
Plaintiffs have moved for a new trial after a jury verdict in favor of the defendant on the issue of liability. This is a diversity negligence action arising out of a collision between plaintiffs' automobile and a truck owned by defendant and operated by defendant's employee on its business. The collision occurred near the intersection of Pennsylvania Routes 26 and 164 in Bedford County, Pennsylvania.
Coming from the west of its intersection with Route 26, Route 164 presents a steep downgrade for about two and one-half miles. Defendant's driver steered his loaded truck down this grade for most of this length with no control over the speed by brakes or engine and no warning horn and attempted to turn to the right onto Route 26. His front wheel hit a curb of a divider at this intersection, the truck hit a steel guard rail, and defendant's driver lost all control of the truck. The truck collided with plaintiff's vehicle which was travelling north on Route 26 at a point near this intersection.
An extensive stipulation between the parties was filed prior to trial, listing the issues of fact agreed upon and those remaining in controversy. In this stipulation it was stated that an issue of law remaining to be litigated at trial was:
(1) Plaintiffs will contend that from the circumstances of the accident alone there is an inference of negligence on the part of the defendant under the laws of Pennsylvania and this presents a factual question for the jury.
Prior to the opening of trial the pretrial stipulation was enlarged to include the following:
The collision occurred after the defendant's truck entered onto the said Route 26 at a rate of speed in excess of the posted speed limit and crossed over the center line on Route 26, entering onto the plaintiffs' proper lane of travel in which lane this collision occurred.
The court ruled that these stipulated facts raised a presumption of negligence on the part of the defendant, which, if not rebutted by the defendants' evidence, would require a directed verdict for plaintiffs on the issue of liability. The court requested an offer of proof of the testimony of plaintiff driver and this offer indicated that plaintiff would testify in part as to the collision, the position of the vehicles at the time and their movement after impact. The court ruled that such testimony would be inadmissible as irrelevant to any contested issue of liability but ruled that the plaintiff driver could testify as to any statements made after the accident by defendant's driver.
A similar offer of proof was made as to proposed testimony of a state police officer who investigated the scene after the collision and who would testify as to the locations of the vehicles and measurements taken at the site. The court allowed the plaintiff to put into the evidence as part of the stipulation the measurements and positions of the vehicles as found by the state police officer, but ruled that the photographs of the police officer showing the damage to the vehicles was immaterial as to the liability case but would be admissible in the damage case or possibly in rebuttal.
At the opening of the trial the court explained the nature of the issue which was to be presented to them in the liability aspect of the trial and instructed them as to the facts which were stipulated upon between the parties. The court further instructed the jury that this stipulation obviated the necessity of calling a series of witnesses who would describe the accident. The jury was further instructed that by reason of the stipulation a prima facie case of negligence on the part of the defendant was made out and that the defendant would be liable for the consequences unless the defendant had a satisfactory explanation for the violation of the required standard of care. The jury was told that the court would bar any evidence of how the collision happened because those things had been established but that the plaintiff would be free to present any evidence in support of other charges of negligence made against the defendant DeVecchis.
It is to be noted that the plaintiffs were at no time barred from the introduction of admissible evidence but rather enjoyed the very substantial advantage of being able to present most of its evidence in rebuttal. Plaintiffs' counsel rested his case in chief after his opening statement, relying on his opportunity to develop evidence by cross-examination of defendant's witnesses and the offering of rebuttal testimony to refute the defendant's burden of proving itself free of negligence under the circumstances. An example of this advantage is shown by plaintiff's request to call the defendant's driver as on cross-examination in its case in chief. On defendant's objection to this offer the plaintiff refrained from calling the driver on cross-examination and had a full opportunity for cross-examination when the defendant presented this evidence.
All of the evidence which plaintiff might have sought to introduce was properly rebuttal material. Its introduction into plaintiffs' case in chief could only be for the purpose of anticipating the defense. It was admitted that plaintiffs' car was struck by defendant's truck, on the wrong side of the road, out of control and at an excessive speed. Plaintiffs' prima facie case has been made. He was struck on the highway under conditions that impose liability. The burden then falls upon the defendant to exculpate himself from each and every allegation of negligence that the plaintiff had pleaded, or theories of negligence which might be developed from the evidence, including improper maintenance, failure of inspection, and failure of defendant's driver to take proper precautions after the failure of the drive shaft and the brakes. The control of these matters is vested in the trial judge. We do not see how the plaintiffs can assert any prejudice from this control of the order of proof, except for ...