Pepper, Hamilton & Scheetz, William J. O'Brien, Philadelphia, for appellant.
F. Emmett Fitzpatrick, Dist. Atty., Steven H. Goldblatt, Asst. Dist. Atty., Chief, Appeals Div., for appellee.
Jones, C. J., and Eagen, O'Brien, Roberts, Pomeroy, Nix and Manderino, JJ. Eagen, J., concurs in result.
Appellant, Lawrence Culberson, was tried before a jury and convicted of murder of the first degree, robbery and burglary for the shooting death of one John Morris in the victim's grocery store in the City of Philadelphia. Post-verdict motions were filed and denied. Following imposition of sentence of life imprisonment on the murder conviction, a direct appeal was taken to this Court pursuant to the Appellate Court Jurisdiction Act, Act of July 31, 1970. P.L. 673, No. 223, art. II, § 202, 17 P.S. § 211.202.*fn1
Appellant first contends that his inculpatory statements to police were the product of an unnecessary delay between arrest and arraignment, and their subsequent admission into evidence violated the mandate of
v. Jones, 457 Pa. 423, 432-33, 322 A.2d 119, 125 (1974). The test is whether there was sufficient mental capacity for the defendant to know what he was saying and to have voluntarily intended to say it. Commonwealth v. Smith, 447 Pa. 457, 460, 291 A.2d 103, 105 (1972). We believe this standard is equally applicable to those instances where an accused was allegedly under the influence of drugs or narcotics at the time of his interrogation by police officials. See United States ex rel. Sadler v. United States, 315 F.Supp. 1377, 1378-79 (E.D.Pa.1970). See also Commonwealth v. Eden, 456 Pa. 1, 317 A.2d 255 (1974).
The burden to prove a valid waiver by a preponderance of the evidence is upon the Commonwealth. Commonwealth v. Fogan, 449 Pa. 552, 296 A.2d 755 (1972). A review of the record discloses that at the suppression hearing Detective Porter testified for the Commonwealth that when he arrested appellant and the other suspects, he smelled an odor which he believed to be marijuana but did not observe any of the individuals smoking marijuana. Porter further testified that he was acquainted with the effects of marijuana but appellant exhibited none of the usual symptoms. Rather, the detective stated that Culberson appeared normal, alert and responsive to questions. After both the oral and written statements, appellant informed Porter that the confession was freely given and he was not under the influence of drugs or alcohol. This evidence supports the factual findings of the suppression court and we therefore conclude that the confession was voluntarily given and admissible at trial.*fn3 See Commonwealth v. Goodwin, 460 Pa. 516, 522, 333 A.2d 892, 895 (1975). Moreover, the question of voluntariness was again raised at trial and submitted to the jury for their consideration. As the
triers of fact they were free to accept or reject, in whole or in part, the testimony of any witness. Apparently, the jury chose to disbelieve appellant's testimony and on appeal, this Court will not disturb that determination. Commonwealth v. Thomas, 465 Pa. 442, 350 A.2d 847 (Filed January 1976); Commonwealth v. Hampton, 462 Pa. 322, 325, 341 A.2d 101, 103 (1975).
Third, citing Commonwealth v. Carter, 427 Pa. 53, 233 A.2d 284 (1967), appellant claims error by the trial court in denying him an opportunity to cross-examine Detective Grace about the identity of an informant. We believe this reliance is misplaced. Carter, supra involved the question of the prosecution's duty to make available to the defense the names of all material eyewitnesses, including confidential informants. In that case, an informant had introduced an undercover agent to appellant and purchased drugs for the agent. In reversing the conviction, this Court held that since the informer was the only material eyewitness to the transaction besides the police and the accused, and the defense consisted solely of appellant's claim of mistaken identity, the privilege of anonymity must yield. Under those specific facts, the Court believed the disclosure of the informant's ...