The opinion of the court was delivered by: GORBEY
The plaintiff, Mary Lincovich, widow of Andrew Lincovich, filed an Application for Survivor's Benefits on August 7, 1970, under the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, as amended, based on the coal mine employment of her deceased husband. After terminating his employment as a miner because of his health, he obtained a truck which he used to haul coal which was loaded and unloaded mechanically. On May 17, 1951, while at a mine to obtain coal, he entered the mine in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue a miner who had been caught underground. Both died as the result of suffocation due to inhalation of carbon monoxide.
On December 24, 1970, the claim was denied by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, on the ground that death was not due to pneumoconiosis. Plaintiff filed a request for reconsideration and the claim was denied on September 22, 1971. On February 25, 1972, plaintiff requested a hearing before an Administrative Law Judge. Subsequently, the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 was amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972, which, inter alia, provides for the payment of benefits in respect of the death of any miner whose death was due to pneumoconiosis, or who at the time of his death was totally disabled by pneumoconiosis. (Emphasis added.) 30 U.S.C.A. § 921(a).
The Act defined total disability to mean:
"When pneumoconiosis prevents a miner from engaging in gainful employment requiring the skills and abilities comparable to those of any employment in a mine or mines, in which he previously engaged with some regularity and over a substantial period of time."
"Adm. Law Judge: Now, a hearing was originally scheduled for May 13, 1974. You appeared at that hearing and stated that you were unaware that your attorney would not be present at the hearing.
"You then requested that the hearing be continued to allow you to obtain another attorney to properly present your case at a future hearing. The hearing was then rescheduled for today, June 18th, and that is why we are here today.
"Now, I note that again you are without an attorney.
"Adm. Law Judge: Do I understand that you wish to be -- you wish to have your case go along without representation?
"Claimant: I guess I'll have to. I don't know what else I can do."
The hearing proceeded and the Administrative Law Judge denied the claim on August 16, 1974. Request for review was made to the Appeals Council of the Department, and on November 22, 1974, the Appeals Council affirmed the decision of the Administrative Law Judge and denied the plaintiff's application for benefits. Thus, the decision of the Administrative Law Judge became the final decision of the Secretary.
On January 21, 1975, plaintiff filed an action in this court, pursuant to § 205(g) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 405(g) and incorporated by reference through Section 413(b) of the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as amended, 30 U.S.C. § 923(b), to review a final decision of the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, disallowing a claim for survivor's benefits under the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972.
Under 42 U.S.C. § 405(g) this court has the power "to enter, upon the pleadings and transcript of the record, a judgment affirming, modifying, or reversing the decision of the Secretary, with or without remanding the cause for a rehearing." It further provides that "The findings of the Secretary as to any fact, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive . . .".
Defendant has filed an answer and as a part thereof a certified copy of the transcript of the record including the evidence upon which the findings and decision complained of are based. Subsequently, plaintiff has filed a motion for summary judgment, supported by a memorandum, five affidavits and a certification by a physician. Defendant has also filed a motion for summary judgment supported by an excellent and thorough brief in support thereof.
The controversy concerns two of the basic issues to be determined by the Administrative Law Judge, which were, whether the plaintiff's deceased husband had pneumoconiosis, and if so whether he was totally disabled as the result of it at the time of his death on May 17, 1951.
The record shows that two physicians, Dr. Stein and Dr. Bankis, who had treated plaintiff's husband, were both dead. Tr. 46. It also shows that he had gone to another physician. Exhibit 12 in the record is a medical report on a form provided by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The form, under the topic "History" stated:
"Please include the history of symptoms, such as dyspnea, and the clinical course of any cardio-pulmonary (diseases) with therapy and response."
Over the physician's signature were the written words:
"I have no evidence in x-ray or breathing test that this man had silicosis."
Unfortunately, no x-ray reports were in existence, no medical documents or evidence such as biopsy or autopsy were available, hence the only reasonable possibility of proving the condition would be through the testimony of co-workers or others who had knowledge of his condition and the symptoms of the dread disease, so familiar to residents of coal mining communities.
Hearings under the Social Security Act are non-adversary. BLANSCET v. RIBICOFF, 201 F. Supp. 257 (W.D. Ark. 1962). Furthermore:
"Rights and privileges are an issue and (when) the guiding hand of counsel is not present to advocate their existence, a duty devolves on the Hearing Examiner to scrupulously and conscientiously probe into, inquire of, and explore for all the relevant facts surrounding the alleged claim of right or privilege."
Hennig v. Gardner, 276 F. Supp. 622, 624-625 (M.D. Tex. 1967).
Pages 44 to 48, inclusive, of the transcript show the results of the "probing" into all of the relevant facts relating to the existence of pneumoconiosis. Its complete inadequacy becomes immediately apparent when considered in connection with the statement in the brief in support of defendant's motion for summary judgment at page 8:
"Since the deceased miner worked some 18 years in mine employment, he will be presumed disabled due to pneumoconiosis arising out of that employment if evidence establishes (1) the existence of a chronic respiratory impairment that (2) prevented him from engaging in mine work or comparable work."
Plaintiff's testimony that her husband had terrible coughing spells, coughing up black phlegm, and loss of weight was not followed by questions from the Administrative Law Judge to find out if there were other symptoms which are normally found in persons suffering from black lung disease. Plaintiff's testimony in regard to the existence of a chronic respiratory impairment was given very little significance by the Administrative Law Judge, because of his interpretation of the words used by the physician in the medical report, Exhibit 12, as shown on page 47 of the transcript:
"Q When says that your husband didn't have any respiratory disease or any thing."
Thus, it is not surprising that the Administrative Law Judge in his evaluation of the evidence wrote:
"The claimant has testified that her husband had coughing spells and spit up black phlegm. Other than these statements by the claimant, there is no evidence whatsoever in support of her contention that her husband had pneumoconiosis, at the time of his death . . ."
In a situation such as this and with a record so barren of evidence with regard to an issue upon the determination of which depends a plaintiff's right to the presumption based upon the 18 years in mine employment, it is only a matter of simple justice that if there is to be a final denial of benefits, it should be on the basis of a record which covers thoroughly the issue as to the existence of a chronic respiratory impairment and the issue with regard to inability to do work involving the skills and abilities utilized during the 18 years of mine employment.
"Because Mr. Lincovich was engaged in work at the time of his death, and did not have 'complicated' pneumoconiosis, there is no basis for finding that he was totally disabled at the time of his death."
Under the relevant statute the test of total disability is "when pneumoconiosis prevents him from engaging in gainful employment requiring the skills and abilities comparable to those of any employment in a mine or mines in which he previously engaged with some regularity and over a substantial period of time." (Emphasis added.)
In view of the statutory definition of total disability and the administrative regulation relating to it, the record should clearly establish the type of work and the skills and abilities involved in it which deceased performed as a "miner as that term is defined in the Act and was so employed for a period of 18 years". (Finding of Fact no. 2, Tr. 9). Plaintiff's testimony in this case is found in pages 32 to 50 of the transcript. Pages 35 to 43 relate to his employment as a miner both inside and outside the mine and for the period of self-employment. The questions, or lack of questions, with respect to the crucial issue are such as to justify the statement made in defendant's brief at page 9 that "aside from plaintiff's remark that 'when he worked in the mines he was doing real mining work, digging, and . . .' The record does not disclose what the decedent's duties as a coal miner involved."
From the evidence, it does appear that plaintiff's husband worked from 1926 to 1931 for the Reading Coal and Iron Company; from 1931 to 1936, for the Gilberton Coal Company, in the mines (Tr. 35, 36). Since not all work in the mines is identical and requires the same skills and abilities, a proper ...