contends that to pass constitutional muster the Hobbs Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1951, must require notice that extortionate conduct will interfere with interstate commerce, and that, absent such notice, the statutory definition of extortion is constitutionally vague. We do not agree.
The purpose of the Hobbs Act is to free interstate commerce from the destructive burdens of extortion. Stirone v. United States, 361 U.S. 212, 215, 80 S. Ct. 270, 4 L. Ed. 2d 252 (1960); United States v. Green, 350 U.S. 415, 420, 76 S. Ct. 522, 100 L. Ed. 494 (1956). The Act expressly proscribes extortion which affects commerce "in any way or degree" and clearly represents an attempt by Congress to exercise its full power under the commerce clause to reach extortionate conduct. Assuredly, the Act requires proof of an effect on commerce as a substantive element of any violation, but this is merely a jurisdictional element underlying the power of Congress to reach the conduct. An essential part of a Hobbs Act violation is extortion, and the fact that interstate commerce is interfered with is merely the basis for federal jurisdiction. It is wholly irrelevant to the protection of commerce that the perpetrator of an extortionate scheme know that interstate commerce is involved, and such a requirement would defeat the Congressional purpose of freeing commerce from all extortion. Contrary to defendant's contention throughout his brief, the jury did not have to find that he could reasonably foresee or anticipate an interference with commerce before he could be convicted of violating the Hobbs Act. See United States v. Iannelli, 477 F.2d 999, 1002 (3rd Cir. 1973), cert. granted, 417 U.S. 907, 94 S. Ct. 2602, 41 L. Ed. 2d 211 (1974); United States v. Roselli, 432 F.2d 879, 891 (9th Cir. 1970), cert. denied, 401 U.S. 924, 91 S. Ct. 883, 27 L. Ed. 2d 828 (1971) and United States v. Blassingame, 427 F.2d 329 (2nd Cir. 1970), cert. denied, 402 U.S. 945, 91 S. Ct. 1629, 29 L. Ed. 2d 114 (1971). Cf. United States v. Bolin, 423 F.2d 834, 836-837 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 398 U.S. 954, 90 S. Ct. 1882, 26 L. Ed. 2d 297 (1970).
Likewise, defendant's argument that knowledge of interference with commerce is in some manner a constitutional predicate to criminal responsibility has no basis in law. The scope of congressional police power under the commerce clause was considered by the Supreme Court in Perez v. United States, 402 U.S. 146, 91 S. Ct. 1357, 28 L. Ed. 2d 686 (1971), and it is clear that the power to protect interstate commerce is not premised on, or limited by, a requirement of specific intent to interfere with commerce.
The decisions under the Hobbs Act clearly reflect this. United States v. Addonizio, 451 F.2d 49, 76-77 (3rd Cir. 1972); United States v. Pranno, 385 F.2d 387, 389-390 (7th Cir. 1967).
The requisite impact on commerce can be de minimus, United States v. DeMet, 486 F.2d 816, 822 (7th Cir. 1973). The jury was justified in finding interference with commerce based upon depletion of BMI's cash assets in an amount in excess of $20,000. United States v. Addonizio, supra, 451 F.2d at 77; United States v. Provenzano, 334 F.2d 678, 692-693 (3rd Cir. 1964).
Insofar as the defendant contends that the phrase "under color of official right" as used in § 1951(b)(2) is void for vagueness, it is our opinion that this language is all that is constitutionally required in that it would give a person of ordinary intelligence fair notice of what is proscribed by the statute. Grayned v. City of Rockford, 408 U.S. 104, 108-114, 92 S. Ct. 2294, 33 L. Ed. 2d 222 (1972).
The defendant's argument that the case should not have been submitted to the jury because the defendant did not have "official capacity" to channel the leases to BMI cannot be sustained. The evidence was overwhelming that the defendant senator represented to Mr. Kelly that he had "de facto" power to procure state leases. Mr. Kelly believed this and, without negotiating with any other person, paid $20,054.56 to the Senator for procuring those leases for BMI. The Senator's representations and actions caused Kelly to reasonably believe that the defendant, as a state senator, had the capacity and the power to procure the leases; the evidence strongly indicates he did have the power, within rate limitations, to procure leases for BMI because of his official position. He did not ask for a real estate commission; he did not ask for a political contribution. He wrongfully represented that it was the practice that state lessors should pay him, a state senator, ten percent of the gross rental for a senate re-election committee, although there was no independent proof of the existence of such a committee. As in United States v. Price, 507 F.2d 1349, 1350 (4th Cir. 1974), we reject the defendant's contention "that guilt may be predicated only upon a further finding that he perverted the legal or statutory power (de jure) of his public office. It is enough that he appeared to act under . . . 'color of official right.'" See also: United States v. Braasch, 505 F.2d 139, 151 (7th Cir. 1974); United States v. Staszcuk, 502 F.2d 875, 878 (7th Cir. 1974). Senator Mazzei, a public official, wrongfully took money not due him or his office.
Even under the common law definition of extortion, it was not necessary to show that the public officer received the extorted money for the performance or non-performance of an act specifically within the scope of his official duties. See: Commonwealth v. Wilson, 30 Pa.Super. 26 (1906).
See also: Commonwealth v. Neff, 195 Pa.Super. 420, 428, 171 A.2d 561, 565 (1961).
Defendant argues that the government did not prove that the defendant took the oath of office and, therefore, did not prove he was in fact a senator. On the contrary, we find that the weight of the evidence introduced by the government clearly establishes that the defendant Mazzei was a state senator. Official election returns introduced into evidence show that Mazzei was first elected in a special election held in November, 1967 and that he was subsequently re-elected to full four-year terms in November, 1968 and November, 1972. In fact, in the 1972 election Mazzei was the candidate for both parties receiving 56,685 votes as a Democrat and 29,264 write-in votes as a Republican.
For the foregoing reasons we think it would be error to grant the defendant's motion for judgment of acquittal.
It is our opinion that a mistrial was not warranted when the prosecutor interjected the notion that Senator Mazzei might have pocketed the money.
What the defendant did with the $20,054.56 was relevant to show his motive and intent. We think it quite relevant to inquire of Kelly what he knew of defendant's intention concerning the disposition of the money. In view of the failure of the defendant to prove he delivered the money to the senate finance committee, as he represented to Kelly, the prosecutor's suggestion, or "notion," even if improper at the time was not of such prejudicial magnitude requiring a mistrial.
Moreover, the jury was subsequently instructed (Tr. p. 944) as defendant requested, that "the use to which defendant put the money paid to him was not an issue in this case."
Defendant argues that the testimony of Lawrence Williams about a telephone conversation with Leo Kelly was prejudicial in that it allowed the government to establish through Williams an element of fear in the victim Kelly which had not been established through Kelly's own testimony. In an extortion case where elements of fear or color of official right are involved, proof of the state of mind of the victim is relevant. This proof may come through the victim's own testimony or through testimony of statements made by him to others. United States v. Kennedy, 291 F.2d 457, 458 (2nd Cir. 1961). Of course, to be admissible, such testimony must not run afoul of the hearsay rule. In this instance, however, it does not matter whether or not the evidence is hearsay. Nuttall v. Reading Company, 235 F.2d 546, 551 (3rd Cir. 1956). McCormick, Evidence § 249 (2nd ed. 1972). One of the exceptions to the rule excluding hearsay allows a witness to testify to a statement of the declarant's then existing state of mind. Even if it is accepted that Williams' testimony about Kelly's statement was submitted to establish the truth of the matter asserted, the testimony was properly received under this exception.
Defendant's argument that the testimony was prejudicial is without merit for two reasons. First, the relevance of the testimony in showing Kelly's state of mind far outweighed any prejudicial effect; and second, the issue of fear on the part of Kelly never reached the jury because, at the close of the government's case, the defendant's motion for a judgment of acquittal was granted as to that portion of the indictment which charged that money had been extorted "by the wrongful use of fear."
The defendant asserts the court erred in its ruling (Tr. pp. 703-708, 838-842) relative to the scope of cross-examination of defendant in the event he testified, which ruling "deprived defendant of the opportunity to testify on his own behalf."
Counsel for defendant specifically stated he would limit "direct testimony of the defendant to the purpose for which the money was paid and the purpose for which he solicited it." (Tr. p. 838) The defendant contended that in light of this offer he could not be cross-examined relative to the use of the money he received from BMI. We disagree.
It is well settled that when a defendant takes the stand on his own behalf he is subject to full cross-examination just as any other witness. United States v. Benson, 487 F.2d 978, 982 (3rd Cir. 1973); United States v. Lowe, 234 F.2d 919, 922 (3rd Cir. 1956). Regardless of whether we adopt the view which limits cross-examination to the subject matter of direct examination,
or the view which allows a witness to be cross-examined on any matters relevant to the case,
the testimony which apparently would have been elicited from defendant in light of his offer would have allowed the prosecution to proffer questions as to the ultimate use of the money. While it is true that the ultimate use of the money would not be a defense to the extortion charge, how the defendant disposed of the money would be relevant to the defendant's intent in soliciting and receiving the payments, the very matters which were to be the subject of defendant's "limited" direct examination. Such questioning would also be relevant as to the credibility of Mr. Kelly, who had testified that defendant told him it was the practice on all state leases that ten percent of the gross rental was payable to a senate re-election committee.
We also disagree with defendant's contention that this refusal to limit cross-examination if defendant had taken the stand was in effect a denial of defendant's Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. Defendant's voluntary testimony on the matters described in his counsel's offer to the court would have been a waiver of his privilege as to all other relevant facts. Johnson v. United States, 318 U.S. 189, 195, 63 S. Ct. 549, 87 L. Ed. 704 (1943); United States v. Weber, 437 F.2d 327, 334 (3rd Cir. 1970); 8 Wigmore, Evidence (McNaughton Rev.1961) § 2276(2). To allow the defendant to testify as to his purpose in soliciting and receiving the payments, which defendant contended were simply political contributions, without allowing the prosecutor to probe this statement of purpose with relevant questions as to the ultimate disposition of the money would have distorted the factual picture before the jury.
Considering all of the above, we find no error in our refusal to limit the scope of cross-examination of the defendant.
The defendant contends a mistrial should have been granted when the prosecutor argued that the taxpayers of Pennsylvania could have received the BMI leases for $20,000 less. We find no merit in the contention of the defendant.
As to this contention the testimony of the defendant's witness, Coll, a field representative for the Bureau of Real Estate, Department of Property and Supplies, on cross-examination, responded in the affirmative to the question whether he would have been more satisfied if he could have obtained the leases from BMI for $20,000 less. (Tr. p. 790) He also testified he sought to get the lowest rental conforming to the standards and requirements of his agency. (Tr. p. 789) Therefore, the argument of the prosecution had an evidential basis. In any event, the remark was not of such prejudicial magnitude which would require a mistrial.
The defendant asserts the court erred in refusing to charge as requested and in failing to correct its charge as requested.
Specifically, the defendant excepted "to the failure to charge on the common law definition of extortion as opposed to the definition that the court has given." (Tr. p. 957)
He contends that under the common law definition of color of official right the jury should have been charged that the money received must have been claimed or accepted under right of office and the person paying must have yielded to official authority.
We do not find that there is as great a distinction as defendant contends between the common law and the law under the Hobbs Act in this regard.
However, the applicable law in this case was the Hobbs Act and our instructions fully covered the meaning of "extortion" as used in the Hobbs Act and conformed to the principles set forth by Mr. Justice Clark in Braasch, supra, 505 F.2d at 150-151. (Tr. pp. 942-943)
The defendant seems to except to the fact that the charge should have informed the jury to distinguish between "motivation for payment focused on the defendant's position" and "his ability to exert political influence." But the jury was told in emphatic terms that:
"If you [the jury] find from the evidence that BMI's treasurer, Mr. Kelly voluntarily made political contributions out of the funds of BMI, Inc. to the defendant for the re-election of incumbent state senators of both political parties and not as kickbacks demanded by the defendant for procuring state leases, you should find the defendant not guilty.
Political contributions made by a corporation may be illegal, but if these illegal contributions were freely and voluntarily made by the officers of BMI to the defendant, and not wilfully extorted by the defendant as kickbacks under color of official right, he is not guilty of extortion." (Tr. pp. 944-945)
The defendant also takes exception to the failure to charge on the offense of bribery. Since the defendant was not charged with bribery, such an instruction may have been confusing and certainly was unnecessary.
The defendant excepted "to the failure to charge that as to interstate commerce, -- the government does have to prove that the defendant knowingly and directly involved himself in some way with the business of the corporation or the entity that he affected in commerce." Without repeating the instructions relating to interstate commerce (Tr. pp. 937-941 and Tr. pp. 943-944), in our opinion the jury was adequately instructed on the issues of interstate commerce.
As to the defendant's final general exception, we reiterate that there was no issue concerning a distinction between official duties and political functions. So long as the motivation for the payments focused on the Senator's office, the Hobbs Act is applicable. Braasch, supra, 505 F.2d at 151. The issue here was whether the defendant extorted money from BMI under color of official right.
Individual questioning of every juror was not required in this case. Instead, the court addressed general questions to the entire array and followed-up by questioning individually those whose responses to any of the initial inquiries on pretrial publicity raised the possibility that they might have formed an opinion on the case. (Tr. pp. 61-70) This method was in accord with recommended procedures outlined in the American Bar Association's Standards Relating to Fair Trial and Free Press § 3.4(a) approved by the Third Circuit in United States v. Addonizio, 451 F.2d 49, 67 (3rd Cir. 1972) for use by the district court's in this circuit. This same procedure was upheld in United States v. Liddy, 166 U.S. App. D.C. 95, 509 F.2d 428 (D.C.Cir.1974).
Furthermore, when a publicity question arose during the trial, each juror was questioned individually under oath as to whether or not he or she had read or heard any such publicity. (Tr. pp. 748-757)
The traditional practice in this district in both state and federal courts is to have the prosecution, the party with the burden of proof in a criminal case, argue last to the jury. There was no error in following that practice in this case. The order of argument is a matter within the discretion of the trial court. United States v. El Rancho Adolphus Products, 140 F. Supp. 645, 649-650 (M.D.Pa.1956), aff'd, 243 F.2d 367 (3rd Cir. 1957).
The court found the pretrial publicity to be neither extensive nor prejudicial. We still do not find it to be prejudicial and in our opinion there was no error in that regard.
Additional errors were set forth in defendant's brief which were not raised in his formal motion for new trial. Practically every ruling adverse to the defendant was fully argued pro and con at the trial; the reasons for the rulings appear in the record and need no further discussion here. As to the additional allegations of error, we do not find them, either individually or cumulatively, to present sufficient grounds for a new trial.
An appropriate order will be entered.