United States presidential election on November 7, 1972.
2. Plaintiff is and was at all times relevant hereto the owner of fifty shares of common stock of Bethlehem Steel Corporation.
3. Bethlehem Steel Corporation (Bethlehem) is a Delaware corporation engaged primarily in the business of steel production, with a principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
4. Bethlehem is the second largest producer of steel in the United States, and in 1971 it had net sales of approximately $2,963,602,000 and net income of approximately $139,239,000.
5. Bethlehem had on September 30, 1972 about 202,670 stockholders who owned about 44,469,541 shares of common stock, which were outstanding on that date. The market value of each share of common stock during 1972 has ranged from a high of $34 5/8 to a low of $25 7/8, and the closing value of a share of common stock on October 16, 1972 was $25 7/8. Plaintiff, who owns fifty shares of such common stock, has owned said stock for more than one year.
6. In connection with the September 11, 1972, mailing of a quarterly dividend to its stockholders, Bethlehem included in the mailing envelope sent to each stockholder a reprint of an advertisement (the "Advertisement") entitled, "I say, let's keep the campaign honest. Mobilize 'truth squads' . . . .". (Exhibit A)
7. The advertisement appeared from on or about August 22, 1972 until September 7, 1972, in various media of national and local circulation, including "Newsweek", "Time", "U.S. News and World Report", "Business Week", "Saturday Review", "Editor and Publisher" and nineteen local newspapers in towns in which Bethlehem has plants.
8. Various magazines in which the advertisement appeared, including "Time", "Newsweek" and "U.S. News and World Report" are distributed nationally to subscribers and by sale at newsstands throughout the United States.
9. "Time", "Newsweek" and "U.S. News and World Report" are published weekly and have substantial circulation.
10. The Public Affairs Department of Bethlehem as indicated in the advertisement will send to each person on request a copy of Mr. Cort's speech entitled "Speak Out for Truth", and a copy of a folder entitled "How you can help to keep the campaign honest".
11. The placement and purchase of the advertisement and the printing and mailing of Mr. Cort's speech and the folder entitled "How you can help to keep the campaign honest" have been, and are being paid for out of the general corporate funds of Bethlehem.
12. Bethlehem may cause the advertisement to appear in the future in media of national and local circulation.
13. The mailing by Bethlehem of Mr. Cort's speech and the folder entitled "How you can help to keep the campaign honest" is continuing at present and may continue in the future. Approximately 5,500 copies of the speech and folder have been sent.
14. A Federal election is scheduled for November 7, 1972, at which voters will have an opportunity to vote for electors for the Presidency and Vice-Presidency of the United States, and for various other Federal offices, including members of Congress.
15. The advertisement, the speech and the folder do not mention by name any person currently a candidate for any local, state or Federal office, and they do not endorse or disparage the candidacy of any person currently seeking election to any local, state or Federal office.
16. The advertisement, the speech and the folder state a variety of viewpoints on issues which voters may face in the upcoming elections, without identifying any particular candidate with any particular political view.
Beginning on August 22, 1972, the "advertisement" about which plaintiff complains appeared in various news media and was distributed to shareholders of the defendant corporation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation, on September 11, 1972. On October 16, 1972, plaintiff formally filed a complaint seeking a preliminary injunction restraining such advertisement. On October 11, 1972, at about 5 P.M., plaintiff applied for a temporary restraining order. After notice, hearing was held on October 13, 1972, and said application was denied. Thereafter, the parties conferred and appeared before the Court on October 20, 1972, submitting a stipulation of facts in lieu of testimony, upon which we base the foregoing "findings of fact". Proposed amended findings and conclusions were submitted to the Court on October 24, 1972, and because of the coming Federal election on November 7, 1972, plaintiff seeks an immediate decision. Therefore, time does not permit the preparation and filing of an expanded and detailed discussion and opinion.
For the purpose of this application for a preliminary injunction, it is sufficient to say that a party seeking a preliminary injunction must establish by clear, positive proof the existence of four essential preconditions to the granting of injunctive relief: (1) irreparable harm to himself absent an injunction; (2) the absence of substantial harm to the defendants; (3) the absence of harm to the public interest; and (4) a likelihood that he will prevail on the merits. Winkleman v. N.Y. Stock Exchange, 445 F.2d 786, 789 (3d Cir. 1971); Nelson v. Miller, 373 F.2d 474, 477 (3d Cir. 1967). Failure to adequately establish at least a reasonable probability of success on the merits justifies denial of an injunction on this ground alone. Industrial Electronics Corp. v. Cline, 330 F.2d 480, 482 (3d Cir. 1964).
Title 18 U.S.C. § 591, as amended, defines, as follows, the term "expenditure" as otherwise used in the Act:
"(f) 'expenditure' means --
(1) a purchase, payment, distribution, loan, advance, deposit, or gift of money or anything of value (except a loan of money by a national or State bank made in accordance with the applicable banking laws and regulations and in the ordinary course of business), made for the purpose of influencing the nomination for election, or election, of any person to Federal office, for the purpose of influencing the result of a primary held for the selection of delegates to a national nominating convention of a political party or for the expression of a preference for the nomination of persons for election to the office of President, or for the purpose of influencing the election of delegates to a constitutional convention for proposing amendments to the Constitution of the United States;