the highway, and that he failed to warn the public of dangerous conditions existing on the highway. The complaint against the Commonwealth was dismissed on a prior occasion, and the instant motion is made by the remaining defendants, Montgomery County and Plymouth Township.
We have concluded that the defendants' motion must be granted. It is undisputed that Conshohocken Road was ordained a state highway by the Act of June 22, 1931, P.L. 594, 36 P.S. § 1738-1 and § 1738-2 which provides in relevant part that such highways are "thereafter to be maintained and constructed at the expense of the Commonwealth". Under the State Highway Law, Act of June 1, 1945, P.L. 1242, Art. IV, Section 401, 36 P.S. § 670-401 the Department of Highways is charged with the duty of constructing, maintaining, and repariring all state highways, and the Secretary is given "in the construction and maintenance of State highways, all the rights and powers conferred by existing laws on supervisors or commissioners in townships in the construction or maintenance of township roads." Section 2002 of the Administrative Code of 1929, the Act of April 9, 1929, P.L. 177, Art. XX, Section 2002, 71 P.S. § 512 specifically provides that "the Department of Highways shall have the power, and its duty shall be * * * to have exclusive authority and jurisdiction over all State highways" and "to mark, build, rebuild, relocate, fix the width of, construct, repair, and maintain [all state highways]." Under Pennsylvania law, it has been held that these statutory provisions place upon the state the sole responsibility for negligence in construction, maintenance and repair of state roads, and that "since there must be a duty and a breach of duty to produce a right of action", counties and municipalities cannot be held liable for alleged negligence in the construction, maintenance, and repair of such roads. Stevens v. Reading St. Railway Co., 384 Pa. 390, 402, 121 A. 2d 128 (1956); Crawford v. Rochester Borough, 182 Pa. Super. 409, 127 A. 2d 810 (1956). Where it is alleged that an accident occurred on a state road because of negligence in failing to inspect, maintain or repair such road, summary judgment in favor of political subdivisions other than the state is appropriate. Livingston v. County of Fayette, 204 F. Supp. 927 (W.D. Pa. 1962).
We see nothing in the circumstances of this case to distinguish it from the force of the foregoing authorities. The negligent acts attributed to all the defendants in the plaintiff's complaint are all ones for which Pennsylvania law holds the Commonwealth shall be solely liable. At argument, however, the plaintiff contended that under the circumstances of this case the police or other agents of the township or county should have observed defects in the road and either fixed them or taken steps to warn motorists. We do not think that such allegations distinguish this case from the authority previously cited. In any event, summary judgment is appropriate in favor of the defendants because, as Rule 56(e) provides:
"* * * When a motion for summary judgment is made and supported as provided in this rule, an adverse party may not rest upon the mere allegations or denials of his pleading, but his response, by affidavits or as otherwise provided in this rule, must set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial. If he does not so respond, summary judgment, if appropriate, shall be entered against him."