The opinion of the court was delivered by: WOOD
1. Kommanvittselskapet Harwi (Rolf Wigand) is a foreign business corporation organized and existing under the laws of Belgium.
2. On May 23, 1963, Kommanvittselskapet Harwi was the owner of the motor vessel GERWI, a Norwegian flag bulk carrier, 562' in length and 72' in breadth.
3. Bergens Skibsassuranseforening of Bergen, Norway, a Norwegian underwriter and added libellant in this action, was hull underwriter of the GERWI on May 23, 1963.
4. On May 23, 1963, the GERWI was under long term time charter to Emerald Shipping Corporation, who had voyage chartered the vessel to Canadian Foreign Steamship Company for one voyage to carry iron ore from South America to the United States Steel Company at Morrisville, Pennsylvania.
5. The GERWI discharged 7,075 tons of ore at Pier 122 South, Philadelphia in order to reduce her draft before transiting the Delaware River to Morrisville.
6. On May 23, 1963, at about 12 o'clock noon, the GERWI left Pier 122 for Morrisville with 15,349 tons of iron ore remaining on board; her draft was 27' 11" forward and aft, as observed in fresh water at Pier 122 South.
7. The compulsory pilot assigned to the GERWI, R. A. Lappe, was at the time herein considered duly licensed by the State of Pennsylvania to pilot ships of foreign registry up the Delaware River. (N.T. 24-8)
8. The decision of how much draft any given ship might take up the Delaware was the responsibility of the individual pilot. (N.T. 531)
9. Pilot Lappe had expected to have a depth of 29'9" plus four feet of high tide on this Torresdale Range, giving a depth of 34 feet available for a 27'11" draft vessel. (N.T. 37)
10. The GERWI proceeded upriver in fair sunny weather with a light 5-6 knot wind. Visibility ...