The opinion of the court was delivered by: TROUTMAN
These two actions represent a long history of litigation arising out of the alleged picketing of the Liberian flag vessel, S.S. Ore Monarch, in Philadelphia, from October 21, 1960, to March 15, 1961. Universe Tankships, Inc., owner of the vessel, and Navios Corporation, the time charterer of the vessel, specifically complain of tortious interferences by the defendants with the movement of the vessel by inducing, encouraging and coercing breaches of contract between themselves and firms which were to supply the vessel with necessary port services. Presently before the Court for disposition is the motion of the defendant Seafarers' International Union of North America, hereinafter referred to as SIUNA, to quash service of process.
Service of process was made in this case upon SIUNA by the delivery of a copy of the complaint at the office of the Atlantic, Gulf, Lakes and Inland Waters District, hereinafter referred to as AGL&I, in Philadelphia. The sole issue presented by the instant motion to quash therefore is whether service of process upon AGL&I is effective service upon SIUNA. The disposition of the motion turns upon whether AGL&I and SIUNA are separate autonomous entities, or whether AGL&I is merely a part of SIUNA and an agency through which it carries on its work. Krulikowsky v. Metropolitan District Council of Philadelphia, 270 F. Supp. 122 (E.D. Pa. 1967).
An examination of the record discloses
that SIUNA is an unincorporated maritime association composed of a number of affiliated local unions and district organizations. It maintains no office or other business location in Pennsylvania. It maintains no bank account, mailing address, telephone listing, or other business facility within the Commonwealth. It owns no Pennsylvania property of any kind and has never paid, or been called upon to pay, any Pennsylvania tax.
1. SIUNA charters its affiliates and all members of its affiliates are members of SIUNA.
2. Although the President, the Secretary-Treasurer and a Vice President of SIUNA and AGL&I are identical, they are elected at different times, for different terms, in different fashions and by different constituencies. The offices of the principal officers of AGL&I are located in New York. In that the headquarters of SIUNA are maintained wherever the office of the President is located, the offices of the President of SIUNA and AGL&I are physically identical.
3. Collective bargaining agreements between employers and the AGL&I on behalf of its constituents are negotiated by representatives of AGL&I independent of SIUNA and all matters in connection therewith and all strikes incidental thereto are controlled by AGL&I independent of SIUNA.
4. SIUNA possesses legislative, executive and judicial powers. The judicial powers of SIUNA encompass the resolution of grievances of members against affiliates and grievances between affiliates.
5. Dues are paid by members of AGL&I directly to AGL&I and the AGL&I in turn pays a per capita tax to SIUNA. Dues are set by AGL&I and the per capita tax rate is set by SIUNA. By virtue of its constitution SIUNA possesses the power to audit the books of its affiliates to determine whether the per capita tax it receives from a given affiliate is accurate. SIUNA has never had occasion to exercise that power with respect to AGL&I.
6. All dues, assessments, and other monies paid to AGL&I and all books, records, property and assets in the possession of AGL&I are the property of AGL&I and not that of SIUNA. If AGL&I is expelled or dissolved, secedes or withdraws, or is otherwise reorganized, the property and assets of AGL&I remain its property and do not revert to SIUNA.
7. SIUNA and other defendants organized the International Maritime Workers Union, hereinafter referred to as IMWU, for the purpose of implementing their policy against slave labor standards and unfair labor tactics. IMWU organized and participated in the picketing activity which is the subject-matter of this litigation.
The relationship of International and district organization is not of itself a sufficient basis for subjecting the International to the jurisdiction of the forum state. Krulikowsky v. Metropolitan District Council of Philadelphia, supra; Keenan v. Metropolitan District Council of Philadelphia, 266 F. Supp. 497 (E.D. Pa. 1966). The nature of the relationship between any International and any district organization is such that some degree of control is inherent and is always retained by any International which charters a district organization. To determine in any given case whether the degree of control is sufficient to give rise to a jurisdictional basis, the character of the affairs subject to supervision or regulation by the International must be weighed against the character of the affairs left to the district organization's discretion.
The relationship which exists between a parent and a subsidiary corporation is analogous to the relationship of an International to its district organization. The identity of the officers and directors of a subsidiary and parent corporation is not sufficient to subject the non-resident parent corporation to jurisdiction in the state in which the subsidiary does business. Electrosonics International, Inc. v. Wurlitzer Co., 234 F. Supp. 913 (E.D. Pa. 1964). So also, the identity of the officers of SIUNA and AGL&I, to the extent it exists, is not in and of itself sufficient to subject ...