Appeals, Nos. 123, 124, 127, and 128, Oct. T., 1960, from judgments of Court of Common Pleas of Clearfield County, Feb. T., 1956, Nos. 470 and 471, in cases of Harvey Bumbarger, Jr. et ux. v. Ray S. Walker et al., and Lewis E. Bumbarger et ux. v. Same. Judgments affirmed; reargument refused October 17, 1960.
Joseph J. Lee, for appellants.
F. Cortez Bell, with him F. Cortez Bell, Jr., and Bell, Silberblatt & Swoope, for appellees.
Before Rhodes, P.j., Gunther, Wright, Woodside, Ervin, Watkins, and Montgomery, JJ.
[ 193 Pa. Super. Page 303]
Plaintiffs, Harvey Bumbarger, Jr., and Lillian A. Bumbarger, his wife, and Lewis E. Bumbarger and Anna Marie Bumbarger, his wife, brought these actions of trespass against defendants, Ray S. Walker and Robert Bailey, for damages resulting from ruination of the spring which supplied water to their properties. The complaints alleged that defendants, in conducting an open pit or strip mining operation on the Albert Smith farm at a higher elevation and about 2,250 feet distant from a spring used by plaintiffs for a domestic water supply, had caused water with a high sulphur content from the mining operation to flow into the spring and render the water unfit for use by plaintiffs in their respective dwellings.
Lewis E. Bumbarger and Harvey Bumbarger, Jr., are sons of Harvey Bumbarger, Sr., on whose land the spring in question is located. Plaintiffs each purchased a lot of ground from their father. These lots adjoin each other. Harvey Bumbarger, Jr., erected a dwelling on his land in 1949, while Lewis E. Bumbarger built in 1951. Under parol permission plaintiffs constructed a pipeline from the spring to their
[ 193 Pa. Super. Page 304]
respective lots. They subsequently received express grants of the easement appurtenant to use of the spring by deeds from their father given in confirmation of the previous parol grants between the parties.
Defendants' strip mining operation lies generally northwest of the spring on the farm of Harvey Bumbarger, Sr., and approximately 2,250 feet distant therefrom. The approximate elevation of the bottom of the pit is 1,728 feet, while that of the springhouse is 1,640 feet. The strata of the area has a general slope from the northwest to the southeast, that is, from defendants' operation downgrade to the springhouse. A watercourse begins at the eastern edge of defendants' mining pit, extends over the property of Harvey Bumbarger, Sr., and passes within fifty feet of the spring in question. On the northeast portion of the lands of Harvey Bumbarger, Sr., are some old strippings and mining operations which have been largely filled in, and are approximately 600 feet from the spring and 30 to 40 feet above the level of the spring. The mining operations ceased at least seven years prior to 1955.
The pit resulting from defendants' strip mining was 200 to 300 feet in length, 40 to 50 feet in width, and 40 to 50 feet deeper than the adjacent highway. A considerable amount of water accumulated in the pit.
The testimony indicates that on several occasions there had been drilling and blasting in the pit, and following the blasting the water disappeared from the bottom of the pit. Concussions from the blasting were felt by the home owners in the area. In one instance five windows were shattered; in another a portion of a cellar wall was damaged. In 1955, subsequent to the blastings in the open pit, the spring on the property of Harvey Bumbarger, Sr., became unfit for domestic use due to the sulphur in the water. The walls of the springhouse turned reddish in color.
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Cooking utensils and plumbing were eaten by the acid. Defendants produced evidence that the spring in question was fed by percolating water as distinguished from surface water.
Testimony of both lay and expert witnesses offered to establish the cause of the contamination was conflicting. Plaintiffs contended, inter alia, that defendants had shattered the underground strata of rock by blastings in the open pit thereby disturbing the flow of subterranean or percolating waters and causing sulphur or acid water to flow into the spring. On the other hand, defendants asserted that the water which caused the contamination of ...