The opinion of the court was delivered by: MARSH
These are diversity actions arising out of a multiple-vehicle accident which occurred on the Pennsylvania Turnpike near the Irwin Interchange at about 9:00 o'clock in the morning of September 5, 1952. The day was bright and clear and the weather was dry.
The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a fourlane east-west highway, two lanes in either direction. Between the east and westbound lanes is a ten-foot wide medial strip. Immediately preceding the accident, the tractor-trailer of Gilbert Carriers, operated by Frank Pisano, was traveling westbound in the slow or right hand lane of traffic. The automobiles of Ruth Whitehill and John Winters were also traveling westbound in the slow lane of traffic some distance behind the tractor-trailer of Gilbert Carriers. Winters, driving a 1949 Ford automobile, was behind Whitehill, who was driving a 1940 Ford automobile. The automobiles were traveling at a speed slightly greater than the tractor-trailer; and upon approaching the tractor-trailer ahead of them, Whitehill and Winters steered their automobiles into the fast or left lane of traffic in an attempt to pass the tractor-trailer. As Whitehill advanced to a position in the fast lane alongside the tractor-trailer, Winters was also behind her in the fast lane of traffic. At this point, a collision occurred as a result of which Winters' car overturned and Whitehill's car went across the medial strip into the path of and collided with the oncoming tractor-trailer of Shirks Motor Express, being operated by Harry Harsh. Gladys Bollman, a passenger in the Whitehill car, received injuries which resulted in her death several days later. Whitehill and Winters also received serious personal injuries. The Shirks' equipment was damaged.
All four actions were consolidated for trial on the issue of liability only. Seven interrogatories were submitted to the jury on the issues of negligence and contributory negligence of the various parties. The jury answered that Gilbert Carriers, by its driver Frank Pisano, and John Winters had been negligent, which negligence was a proximate contributing cause of the accident. They also answered that Ruth Whitehill and Shirks Motor Express, by its driver Harry Harsh, had not been negligent or contributorily negligent.
Based upon the answers of the jury to the interrogatories, the suit in which John Winters was plaintiff was dismissed, and the suits of the successful plaintiffs were set down for trial on the issue of damages.
Thereafter, trial was had on the issue of damages suffered by Shirks Motor Express and, based upon the jury's verdict, judgment was entered in favor of Shirks Motor Express in the sum of $ 3,146.70 against John D. Winters and Gilbert Carriers, Inc.
At the close of the evidence in the trial on the issue of liability, Winters, as defendant, made a motion for a directed verdict in his favor upon which motion the court reserved its decision. After the verdict, Winters, as defendant, made a motion for judgment in accordance with his motion for a directed verdict, or, in the alternative for a new trial. He also filed a motion for a new trial in his suit as plaintiff.
We think there was sufficient evidence from which the jury could find that Winters had negligently operated his automobile into the rear of the Whitehill automobile and that such negligence proximately caused or at least contributed to his own injuries and also the injuries and damages suffered by the other three plaintiffs.
Winters also assigned as error in his motion for a new trial certain portions of the court's charge to the jury relating to the 'assured clear distance ahead' rule and also with respect to the instructions on proximate cause. After argument on the motion and consideration of the evidence and the charge to the jury, we are not convinced that any prejudicial error was committed which operated to the disadvantage of Winters in his capacity as plaintiff or defendant. The motions filed by Winters will be denied.
Gilbert Carriers and Frank Pisano also filed a motion for a new trial, assigning as a reason therefor, inter alia, that the court erred in instructing the jury, over objection, that Gilbert Carriers and Frank Pisano could be found guilty of negligence even though there was no contact between the Whitehill automobile and the tractor-trailer of Gilbert Carriers. At the argument, Gilbert Carriers and Frank Pisano abandoned all errors alleged in their motion except this one issue upon which they rested their plea for a new trial.
Ruth Whitehill testified she pulled into the fast lane to pass the tractor-trailer of Gilbert Carriers and was alongside it when she noticed she was being edged or crowded to the left. 'It edged over and then all of a sudden it seemed to be right on top of me' (T., p. 63). She automatically swung the wheels of her automobile and edged to the left toward the medial strip, and she then felt an impact at the right rear of her vehicle which sent her automobile out of control and across the medial strip into the path of the oncoming tractor-trailer of Shirks Motor Express (T., p. 58). She was not certain whether the tractortrailer of Gilbert Carriers had come across the white divider line between the fast and slow lane. 'It seems that it probably did, but I couldn't see for certain' (T., p. 63). She said she did not know what caused the impact.
Winters testified he was behind Whitehill also attempting to pass the tractortrailer and that he saw the tractortrailer come across the white divider line and come into contact with the Whitehill automobile (T., p. 107). He also testified the trailer came in contact with the right front of his automobile causing him to lose control of it. In a statement given to a police officer shortly after the accident, Winters stated, 'The (Gilbert Carriers) truck started to come over toward the (Whitehill) car traveling in the passing lane. I went to hit the brake, because the (Whitehill) car in the passing lane seemed to slow down. And when I hit the brake, it threw my car into the truck and then I hit the back end of the car.'
Frank Pisano, driver of the tractortrailer of Gilbert Carriers, testified he saw the Whitehill automobile draw up alongside his tractor-trailer, that the car swayed in toward him, that he tapped the horn and the Whitehill car went over the medial strip (T., p. 293). He said his tractor-trailer did not cross the white divider line and that there was no contact between his vehicle and the Whitehill automobile. Two other witnesses, a service station salesman and a state police officer, testified they inspected the Gilbert Carriers tractor-trailer shortly after the accident, found it dirty and covered with road scum and found no fresh marks as would indicate an impact between it and another object.
The court charged the jury that it might find Pisano and Gilbert Carriers negligent even though there was no contact between the tractor-trailer and the Whitehill automobile.
It also charged on the ...