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POLLARD v. UNITED STATES

decided: February 25, 1957.

POLLARD
v.
UNITED STATES



CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE EIGHTH CIRCUIT.

Warren, Black, Reed, Frankfurter, Douglas, Burton, Clark, Minton, Harlan, Brennan

Author: Reed

[ 352 U.S. Page 355]

 MR. JUSTICE REED delivered the opinion of the Court.

This case concerns the validity of a sentence imposed on petitioner in September 1954. On September 8, 1952, petitioner pleaded guilty in the United States District Court for the District of Minnesota to an information charging him with the unlawful taking and embezzlement of a United States Treasury check in violation of 18 U. S. C. § 1702. The district judge deferred imposition of sentence pending presentence investigation. On October 3, 1952, petitioner appeared before the trial judge at 10 a. m. for sentencing. He was then serving a sentence in a Minnesota state prison, from which he was eligible for parole the following month. The judge stated that the probation report showed that petitioner had taken an active interest in the Alcoholics Anonymous organization in prison, and petitioner told him that he contemplated continuing that interest when he was released from the state prison. The judge added that he was impressed by the fact that petitioner, who had stolen the check after a two-week drinking spree, had revealed what he had done to an officer of Alcoholics Anonymous and to the FBI without any effort to minimize the offense. He advised petitioner to join Alcoholics Anonymous immediately on his release from the state prison. He then said:

". . . if you want to revert to drinking, you will be back here again because you will commit some federal offense, and I won't be talking to you this way if you are ever before me again.

[ 352 U.S. Page 356]

     "So, good luck to you and I hope the parole board will give you an opportunity.

"That is all."

The judge then turned to other business.

It is clear that no explicit reference to petitioner's sentence had been made during this colloquy. But before the court adjourned at 10:30 a. m., when petitioner apparently had left the courtroom, an assistant United States District Attorney handling the matter said:

"Going back to the matter of Thomas E. Pollard who appeared this morning -- I didn't quite understand that clearly -- is there to be a probationary period after his release from Stillwater, or any type of sentencing?

"The Court: It is to commence at the expiration of sentencing at Stillwater.

"Mr. Hachey: Probation to commence after expiration of his sentencing at Stillwater -- for how long?

"The Court: Three years."

A judgment and order of probation was then entered suspending imposition of sentence and placing petitioner on probation for that term. The Government concedes that the judgment and order was invalid because of petitioner's absence from the courtroom when probation was imposed. Fed. Rules Crim. Proc., 43.

Petitioner did not receive a copy of this order, despite a direction of the court, but learned of the probation from state prison officials the following month when he was paroled. On his release he began reporting to the federal probation officer. Nearly two years later, on September 1, 1954, the trial judge issued a bench warrant for petitioner's arrest on the basis of the probation officer's report that petitioner had violated the terms of his probation. Petitioner was arrested and brought before the

[ 352 U.S. Page 357]

     court on September 21, 1954. After waiver of counsel by petitioner, the following occurred at the hearing:

"The Court: What I am going to do in your case, because of the record, is to sentence you in the first instance: It's the judgment of the Court that you be confined in an institution to be selected by the Attorney General of the United States for a period of two years. That's all.

"Mr. Evarts [Asst. U.S. Attorney]: Now, Your Honor, as you recall, the record shows that he was, sentence was imposed on October 3, 1952, and I would suggest to the Court that an Order be made setting aside the judgment and commitment that was entered at that time so that the record will now truly reflect the status of the events.

"The Court: All right."

A formal judgment and commitment was then entered, sentencing petitioner to two years' imprisonment and setting aside the judgment and order of probation entered on October 3, 1952.

Petitioner's motion to vacate this sentence under 28 U. S. C. § 2255 was based upon a misapprehension of the basis for the sentence of 1954. He contended that, since his 1952 probation sentence was invalid, his 1954 prison sentence was also invalid because it was for probation violation. Actually, of course, it was punishment for the embezzlement. The District Court denied the motion on the ground that "[Petitioner] was initially sentenced upon September 21, 1954, and the files and records in the case conclusively show that said judgment was within the jurisdiction of the court and the sentence imposed was valid and in accordance with law." Petitioner filed a ...


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