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07/12/56 Solomon Mcnair, v. United States of America

July 12, 1956




Before EDGERTON, Chief Judge, and PRETTYMAN and BASTIAN, Circuit Judges.



These are appeals from an order of the District Court denying a motion to vacate sentence, withdraw pleas of guilty, and enter a plea of not guilty. *fn1

On February 14, 1938, - eighteen years ago - appellant McNair was arraigned and pleaded guilty to sixteen indictments for robbery and one indictment charging assault with intent to kill. The record does not disclose that he was represented by counsel at that time. He was sentenced four days after his arraignment. When sentence was imposed, counsel representing McNair was present, although there is nothing to show whether this counsel had been appointed by the court or, if so appointed, the time of his appointment.

McNair filed his motion to vacate sentence in 1955, more than seventeen years after he had been sentenced. In a short affidavit in support of the motion McNair said that at his arraignment he was without counsel, that he was not aware he was entitled to counsel, and that he did not waive counsel at that time. When the motion was argued the attorney representing McNair made clear that his purpose was not to secure a new trial; he said he was merely seeking to have McNair resentenced. *fn2

After the District Court had ruled, denying the motion to vacate sentence, a motion for rehearing was filed, accompanied by a second affidavit. In that affidavit McNair said again that he was not represented by counsel when he was arraigned, but he stated that on the morning sentence was imposed he had a conference with an attorney who was also representing one of his co-defendants in the matter. He said that during the conference he was not questioned and did not reveal any information about specific robberies in which he had participated. McNair also said his recollection was that counsel had made no statement in his behalf at the time of sentencing, but he admitted his recollection was hazy on this point. There is nothing in this affidavit about waiver of the right to counsel at the time of arraignment.

McNair relies upon the rule that an accused is entitled to the assistance of counsel at all stages of the proceedings. The Government replies that when an accused makes a collateral attack upon a judgment he undertakes the burden of showing he did not waive counsel, and that the longer the delay in launching the attack the greater the burden becomes. *fn3 The Supreme Court said in Johnson v. Zerbst: *fn4

"It must be remembered, however, that a judgment cannot be lightly set aside by collateral attack, even on habeas corpus. When collaterally attacked, the judgment of a court carries with it a presumption of regularity. Where a defendant, without counsel, acquiesces in a trial resulting in his conviction and later seeks release by the extraordinary remedy of habeas corpus, the burden of proof rests upon him to establish that he did not competently and intelligently waive his constitutional right to assistance of counsel."

We agree with the Government that McNair did not meet his burden. The circumstances indicate that he fully intended to bring about a speedy disposition of the matter, that he was not unfamiliar with court procedure, that his co-defendants had counsel, and that he himself had counsel a few days after arraignment and before sentence but made no effort to revoke his pleas of guilty. He never contested his guilt. The only proof offered by McNair with respect to waiver is an unsupported, uncorroborated statement of his own.

What McNair really complains of is that at the time he was sentenced his counsel did not know the details of his participation in the crimes charged in the indictments. But his own affidavit indicates he had a conference with the attorney before he was sentenced. There is no statement that an adequate opportunity for consultation was not given or that his counsel was unwilling to present information to the court. Nor is there any indication that the court would have refused to allow McNair to withdraw his pleas or would otherwise have failed to act favorably had additional information been presented to it.

We think the District Court properly denied the motion to vacate the sentence.



EDGERTON, Chief Judge ...

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