Appeal, No. 83, Jan. T., 1953, from judgment of Court of Common Pleas of Lehigh County, April T., 1948, No. 88, in case of Reynold F. Powell v. Mark Risser, Norman Daley and Harry F. Hoffman. Judgment reversed.
Harold A. Butz, with him Kenneth H. Koch, Philip H. Strubing, Butz, Steckel, Hudders & Rupp, and Evans, Bayard & Frick, for appellants.
Samuel D. Frederick, with him Milton J. Goodman, Henry L. Snyder and Snyder, Wert & Wilcox, for appellee.
O. Jacob Tallman, with him H. J. Woodward, Deputy Attorney General, and Robert E. Woodside, Attorney General, for Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, under Rule 46.
Before Stern, C.j., Stearne, Jones, Chidsey, Musmanno and Arnold, JJ.
OPINION BY MR. JUSTICE ARNOLD
The plaintiff, Powell, brought this action of trespass to recover damages for personal injuries to his hands, alleged to have been sustained by reason of the
improper conduct of Dr. Mark Risser, Dr. Norman Daley and Dr. Harry F. Hoffman. The court below entered a non-suit as to Dr. Hoffman, who was superintendent of the Allentown State Hospital. The plaintiff did not appeal from the refusal to take off the non-suit. A verdict was returned against Dr. Risser and Dr. Daley, on which judgment was entered, and the defendants appealed from the refusal of their motion for judgment n.o.v.
The plaintiff was admitted as a patient to the Allentown State Hospital (for the insane) in September, 1943, suffering from a mental illness, to wit manic depressive psychosis. He was about 19 years of age and physically sound. About May 1, 1946, the plaintiff escaped from the hospital and was returned by the police on the following day. He was brought to the hospital in a manic state, violent, threatening to run away and liable to injure himself and others. His physical condition was good.
The illness from which plaintiff was suffering is characterized by fluctuations from periods of depression, worry, loss of weight, to periods of over-activity, lack of restraint and excitability. Part of the time the patient may seem entirely normal. His emergence from one mood to another may occur suddenly. During the over-active period the patient, in common language, is a raving maniac. Plaintiff's record at the hospital was one of furloughs in the charge of his family, stealing and wrecking of automobiles, and return from such escapades to the hospital by the police. On May 2, 1946, when the plaintiff was brought back to the hospital by the police, Dr. Risser directed the supervisor of nurses, Buck, to administer a wet pack. Having done so, the supervisor of nurses reported to Dr. Risser that the plaintiff's physical condition was all right, but that he was violent and threatening, and
that there was no way of keeping him except in the pack. Thereupon Dr. Risser ordered a second wet pack. Later the supervising nurse reported to Dr. Risser that the plaintiff was still violent and threatening, but that his physical condition was good. Dr. Risser ordered the wet pack treatment continued so long as the patient was violent and maniacal, providing his physical condition remained good. All told three wet packs were administered by the nursing personnel and the attendant, the last pack being administered on May 3. These wet pack treatments differed in no way from the accepted and standard practice, not only in the Allentown State Hospital but in all other mental institutions operated and maintained by the Commonwealth. Such treatments are the most modern and humane method yet devised for the restraint of violent, raving and desperate patients.
Following the administration of the wet pack treatments the plaintiff's hands were considerably affected, so that he now has a 60% impairment of their use.
The wet pack treatment is administered to patients whose mental condition renders them violent, and is both a means of calming them emotionally through the therapeutic effects of warm water and of restraining them from violence. Such treatment is administered in the following manner: Sheets numbering usually six are immersed in water. They are then wrung dry, the arms are separately wrapped, and the sheets then wrapped around the body and the arms and legs, so that the patient is completely swathed in sheets from his head to the tips of his toes. Two sheets are used as ties, one placed about the body and arms in the region of the elbows and tied, and the other is tied above and below the knees. The patient is able to move his limbs but he cannot free himself. He is then immersed in a tub of water, the temperature of which
is controlled by a thermostat at about 94 to 96 degrees. He is kept in the water for a period of approximately six hours. He is then taken out, the sheets are removed, and he is bathed and the body rubbed with oil or grease. Fresh sheets are then applied and he is again immersed in the water. Generally the patient receives a series of these treatments, the number and duration of which depend upon his mental and physical condition.
During the time of the wet pack treatment proper practice requires the nursing personnel to note the temperature of the patient, the pulse rate and respiration, and make report to the physician of the patient's condition if anything unusual occurs. While the treatments are given only on order of the physician, their administration, -- that is, wrapping of the patient in sheets, the immersion in water, check of water temperature, pulse, respiration, and observation of the patient and reporting thereon to the physician, -- is strictly a nursing procedure, and is performed only by the nurses and attendants. At no time are physicians present or required to be present unless the reports from the nurses and attendants indicate a necessity therefor.
About 24,000 of the wet pack treatments are administered in the Allentown State Hospital every year without any injurious effect.
Dr. Goshorn was plaintiff's expert on the subject of the method of administering wet packs. Both on direct and cross-examination he reiterated that it is entirely a nursing procedure, and that the physician is never present or required to be, does not observe the patient, but relies on reports from the nurses. He testified that the mental condition of the plaintiff might ...