CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE THIRD CIRCUIT.
Vinson, Black, Reed, Frankfurter, Jackson, Burton, Clark, Minton, McGrath; Douglas took no part in the consideration or decision of this case.
MR. JUSTICE BLACK delivered the opinion of the Court.
Federal statutes have long authorized the Postmaster General to forbid delivery of mail and payment of money orders to "any person or company" found, "upon evidence satisfactory" to him, to be "conducting any . . . scheme or device for obtaining money . . . through the mails by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises . . . ."*fn1 Following a hearing the Postmaster
General issued such an order restricting respondent's use of the mails.*fn2
The representations on which the order is based relate to respondent's anti-fat treatment, nationally advertised under the name of "Dr. Phillips' Kelp-I-Dine Reducing Plan." "Kelp-I-Dine" is a name used by respondent for granulated kelp, a natural seaweed product containing iodine. The Reducing Plan is twofold: It requires users to take one-half teaspoonful of "Kelp-I-Dine" per day, and suggests following a recommended daily diet which accompanies the vials of kelp.
Respondent's advertisements made expansive claims for its plan. They represented that persons suffering from obesity could "eat plenty" and yet reduce 3 to 5 pounds in a week surely and easily, without "tortuous diet" and without feeling hungry. Unhappy people eager to reduce but also eager to eat plenty were repeatedly reassured with alluring but subtly qualified representations such as these: "Remember with the Kelpidine Plan, you don't cut out ice cream, cake, candy, or any other things you like to eat. You just cut down on them." The alleged safety of the remedy and extraordinary efficacy of kelp were emphasized in advertisements stating that it "makes no difference if you are 16 or 60, or if you have diabetes, rheumatism or any other ailment. Kelpidine is always safe and doctors approve the Kelpidine plan. You simply take a half teaspoon of Kelpidine once each day and eat three regular sensible meals. Kelpidine decreases your appetite."
Two doctors with wide general knowledge in the field of dietetics and treatment for obesity were called by the Government in the fraud hearing. They testified
that iodine, to which respondent chiefly attributed the fat-reducing powers of kelp, is valueless as an anti-fat; that kelp would not reduce hunger; that the suggested diet was too drastic to be safe for use without medical supervision, particularly where users suffered from chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart trouble. The one physician called by respondent testified that iodine was used by physicians as a weight reducer, and expressed his judgment that it did have value for such use. Even he, however, conceded that the daily dosage of iodine to reduce weight would be fifty to sixty times more than the iodine in respondent's daily dosage of kelp. The respondent's witness also admitted that the recommended diet was "rigid," and might prove harmful to persons suffering from tuberculosis, anemia, or heart disease.
The findings of the Postmaster General were that kelp is valueless as a weight reducer and that whatever efficacy there was in the remedy lay in the diet recommendations. He also found that the diet was neither uniformly safe nor harmless and might be particularly dangerous for persons afflicted with heart and kidney troubles; that the diet could not, as represented, be pursued in ease and comfort, without hunger, while eating the things respondent had led people to believe they could. On these findings the fraud order was entered.
The District Court granted an injunction against enforcement of the fraud order on the ground that the order was unsupported by factual evidence.*fn3 Asserting that there was "no exact standard of absolute truth" against which respondent's advertisements could be measured, the court held that the testimony of the two doctors on which the Government's case rested was reduced by the conflicting ...