We are thus confronted with a request by a simple contract creditor for the appointment of a receiver of a solvent corporation over the objection of the corporation. The claim of the plaintiffs has not been reduced to judgment. Plaintiffs do not have any lien or interest in the property of defendants, their only right being their claim for breach of contract. This question has been decided by an array of United States Supreme Court decisions to the effect that such an appointment should not be made.
Many of the authorities could be quoted at length. We refrain from doing so and in place thereof direct attention to Scott v. Neely, 1891, 140 U.S. 106at page 108, 11 S. Ct. 712, 35 L. Ed. 358, where the matter is discussed at length commencing from the earliest period in England, and from the early history of this country to the time of the decision.
Inter alia that case holds that an action which seeks to recover a money judgment for breach of a simple contract can be brought in the Federal courts only on the law side. See 7th Amendment to the Constitution and Jud. Code, Sec. 267, 28 U.S.C.A. § 384; Cates v. Allen, 1893, 149 U.S. 451at page 457, 13 S. Ct. 883, 37 L. Ed. 804; Hollins v. Brierfield Coal & Iron Co., 1893, 150 U.S. 371, 14 S. Ct. 127, 128, 37 L. Ed. 1113, 'It is the settled law of this court that such creditors cannot come into a court of equity to obtain the seizure of the property of their debtor, and its application to the satisfaction of their claims * * * . Nor is it otherwise in case the debtor is a corporation, and an unpaid stock subscription is sought to be reached.' The court holds that the insolvency of the corporation would not alter the rule. In the instant case the corporation is solvent, at least insofar as any evidence has been presented to the court
Pusey & Jones v. Hanssen, 1923, 261 U.S. 491, 497, 43 S. Ct. 454, 455, 67 L. Ed. 763, we quote at length from the opinion of Mr. Justice Brandeis:
'A receiver is often appointed upon application of a secured creditor who fears that his security will be wasted. Kountze v. Omaha Hotel Co., 107 U.S. 378, 395, 2 S. Ct. 911, 27 L. Ed. 609. A receiver is often appointed upon application of a judgment creditor who has exhausted his legal remedy. See White v. Ewing, 159 U.S. 36, 15 S. Ct. 1018, 40 L. Ed. 67. But an unsecured simple contract creditor has, in the absence of statute, no substantive right, legal or equitable, in or to the property of his debtor. This is true, whatever the nature of the property, and although the debtor is a corporation and insolvent. The only substantive right of a simple contract creditor is to have his debt paid in due course. His adjective right is, ordinarily, at law. He has no right whatsoever in equity until he has exhausted his legal remedy. After execution upon a judgment recovered at law has been returned unsatisfied, he may proceed in equity by a creditors' bill. Hollins v. Brierfield Coal & Iron Co., 150 U.S. 371 14 S. Ct. 127, 37 L. Ed. 1113. Compare Swan Land & Cattle Co. v. Frank, 148 U.S. 603, 13 S. Ct. 691, 37 L. Ed. 577; National Tube Works Co. v. Ballou, 146 U.S. 517, 13 S. Ct. 165, 36 L. Ed. 1070; Pierce v. United States, 255 U.S. 398, 403, 41 S. Ct. 365, 65 L. Ed. 697. He may, by such a bill, remove any obstacle to satisfy his execution at law, or may reach assets equitable in their nature, or he may provisionally protect his debtor's property from misappropriation or waste, by means either of an injunction or a receiver. Whether the debtor be an individual or a corporation, the appointment of a receiver is merely an ancillary and incidental remedy. A receivership is not final relief. The appointment determines no substantive right, nor is it a step in the determination of such a right. It is a means of preserving property which may ultimately be applied toward the satisfaction of substantive rights.'
Lion Bonding Co. v. Karatz, 1923, 262 U.S. 77, 43 S. Ct. 480, 67 L. Ed. 871, holding that insolvency is not an equitable ground for appointing a receiver at the suit of a simple contract creditor.
See also Harkin v. Brundage, 1928, 276 U.S. 36,at page 52, 48 S. Ct. 268, 274, 72 L. Ed. 457, 464
Shapiro v. Wilgus, 1932, 287 U.S. 348,at page 355, 53 S. Ct. 142, 77 L. Ed. 355, 85 A.L.R. 128, opinion by Mr. Justice Cardozo: 'Ordinarily a creditor who seeks the appointment or receivers must reduce his claim to judgment and exhaust his remedy at law. The Uniform Fraudulent Conveyance Act may have relaxed that requirement in many of the states * * * but the rule in the federal courts remains what it has always been.
'True indeed it is that receivers have at times been appointed even by federal courts at the suit of simple contract creditors if the defendant was willing to waive the irregularity and to consent to the decree. This is done not infrequently where the defendant is a public service corporation and the unbroken performance of its services is in furtherance of the public good. In re Metropolitan Railway Receivership, 208 U.S. (90), 109, 111, 28 S. Ct. 219, 52 L. Ed. 403. It has been done at times, though the public good was not involved, where legitimate private interests might otherwise have suffered harm. United States v. Butterworth-Judson Corp., 269 U.S. 504, 513, 46 S. Ct. 179, 70 L. Ed. 380; Kingsport Press v. Brief English Systems (2 Cir.), 54 F.2d 497, 500 (501); Harkin v. Brundage, supra, 276 U.S.(AT page) 52, 48 S. Ct. 268, 72 L. Ed. 457. We have given warning more than once, however, that the remedy in such circumstances is not to be granted loosely, but is to be watched with jealous eyes. Michigan v. Michigan Trust Co., 286 U.S. 334, 345, 52 S. Ct. 512, 76 L. Ed. 1136; Harkin v. Brundage, supra.' Ibid at page 356 of 287 U.S., at page 144 of 53 S. Ct., 77 L. Ed. 355, 85 A.L.R. 128.
See Atlas Ins. Co. v. W. I. Southern, Inc., 1939, 306 U.S. 563,at pages 568, 569, 59 S. Ct. 657, 83 L. Ed. 987.
Guaranty Trust Co. v. York, 1945, 326 U.S. 99,at page 106, 65 S. Ct. 1464, 89 L. Ed. 2079, 160 A.L.R. 1231; opinion by Mr. Justice Frankfurter. See particularly footnote 3 at page 106 of 326 U.S., at page 1468 of 65 S. Ct., 89 L. Ed. 2079, 160 A.L.R. 1231 where the court in discussing Pusey & Jones v. Hanssen, supra, said: ' * * * Although traditional equity notions do not give a simple contract creditor an interest in the funds of an insolvent debtor, the State may, as this Court recognized, create such an interest. * * * Delaware could not modify the traditional equity rule in the federal courts that only someone with a defined interest in the estate of an insolvent person, e.g., a judgment creditor, can protect that interest through receivership. * * * '
For the foregoing reasons the request for the appointment of a receiver of Foundation is denied.
As to the request for the appointment of a receiver of Westfield, an individual, a natural person, we are confronted with a problem of equity jurisdiction.
Plaintiffs, over defendants' objection, asked for the appointment of a receiver to restrain the business conduct and to take possession of the assets of Westfield, an individual.
If one reviews the early history of equity jurisdiction in England, it will be noted that receiverships were granted in order to protect the interest of a remainderman. It will also be noted that receiverships were granted as to property held by individuals in a representative capacity, to wit, administrators and executors.
The matter was not discussed in the brief of either counsel and we have not been able, on independent investigation, to discover any case where the Federal courts have granted a receivership of property of an individual as such. There is a very interesting discussion on the possibilities of such a receivership being granted if the proper fact situation was presented to the court. See Chapter V, Clark on Receivers, 2d Ed., p. 209 et seq. The matter has been before the Federal court on several occasions and in each instance the jurisdiction of equity to appoint a receiver of the property of an individual has been denied.
'The administration of the affairs of a solvent individual is not a recognized head of equity jurisdiction. The subject-matter is not one over which the court has jurisdiction. Mere waiver by the defendant of objections otherwise fatal to the capacity of the plaintiff to invoke such jurisdiction in the case of a corporation removes the only obstacle to the granting of the relief desired. In the case of an individual defendant, it leaves untouched the most serious difficulty of all, namely, that the subject-matter is not one within the province of the court.' Citing cases. In re Richardson's Estate, D.C., 294 F.349at page 358.
'In its most favorable aspect the plaintiff's case comes under no recognized head of equity jurisdiction. Indeed, we take it to be an established principle of jurisdiction that a court of equity is without power, in the absence of statutory authority, to appoint a receiver of the assets of an individual debtor, or to enjoin the prosecution of claims against him, at the suit of a mere contract creditor who has no lien or other security, and who asserts no right to subject any specific property to the payment of his debt. Equity may aid in a proper case when legal remedies have been exhausted, but cannot be resorted to in the first instance.' Citing cases. Davis v. Hayden, 4 Cir., 238 F. 734,at page 738.
'An individual is not a corporation. The administration of the affairs of an insolvent individual is not a recognized head of equity jurisdiction as is the administration of the assets of an insolvent corporation. The subject-matter in the former case is not one over which the court has jurisdiction.' Maxwell v. McDaniels, 4 Cir., 184 F. 311,at page 316.
'It is true that a simple contract creditor cannot have a receiver appointed to take possession of the assets of an individual debtor. 1 Tardy's Smith on Receivers, 649. It is also true that such a creditor cannot have a receiver of corporation assets appointed, when the corporation assets appointed, when the corporation resists such appointment.' First Nat. Bank etc. v. Stewart Fruit Co., D.C., 17 F.2d 621, 622. See note 'The Propriety of Friendly Receiverships in the Federal Courts' (1930), 43 Harv. L. Rev. 1298 at 1301.
No relief in the nature of having a receiver appointed could be obtained as to the individual defendant in the courts of Pennsylvania. Hogsett v. Thompson, 258 Pa. 85, 101 A. 941, 943, where it was held error to appoint a receiver of an individual debtor who was unable to meet his debts as they became due, the court observing, 'The supervision and control of partnerships, and of corporations, are recognized heads of equity jurisdiction, but the administration of the affairs of an individual, sui juris, and compos mentis, is not.' See also 8 Standard Pennsylvania Practice, p. 488, Section 8.
For the foregoing reasons the request for an order for the appointment of a receiver of Westfield, an individual, is denied.
In view of the nature of plaintiff's claim there is no need for an accounting. United States v. Bitter Root Development Co., 1906, 200 U.S. 451, 26 S. Ct. 318, 50 L. Ed. 550. The prayer of the complaint for an accounting is therefore denied.
Since there is an adequate remedy at law, the prayer for an injunction is denied.
An order disposing of the plaintiff's motions for an accounting, an injunction and the appointment of a receiver as to the corporation and as to the individual will be filed forthwith.